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.docx   HYDRAULIC.docx (Size: 1.47 MB / Downloads: 148)


This project report is about designing a hydraulic ram pump to transfer water from a river into awater tank with given dimensions and conditions. The hydraulic ram pump designed is believedto be the most suitable and efficient for the given conditions based on the calculations performed.
For the first step of designing, all the related problems are listed and understand. Then, thespecifications, criteria and evaluation of the solutions are developed. This including choosing themost suitable operational working principals for the hydraulic ram pump (hydram), outline of thetheoretical background behind the operation and its details calculations, which are being referredto the concept and theory entitles to Fluid Mechanics. This is followed by the details drawing of the hydraulic ram pump by using the SOLIDWORKS software. From the calculationsperformed, the hydraulic ram pump designed with radius of 0.1m and length of 0.5m has highand reasonable efficiency. Its flowrate to the delivery tank is determined to be 0.00069m3/sandrequired about20 daysand3 hoursto fill completely the tank at a height of 20m from river flow


A hydraulic ram pump (also called hydram) is a pump that uses energy from a falling quantity of water to pump some of it to an elevation much higher than the original level at the source. No other energy is required and as long as there is a continuous flow of falling water, the pump will work continuously and automatically. Provision of adequate domestic water supply for scattered rural populations is a major problem in many developing countries. Fuel and maintenance costs to operate conventional pumping systems are becoming prohibitive. The hydraulic ram pump (hydram) is an alternative pumping device that is relatively simple technology that uses renewable energy, and is durable. The hydram has only two moving parts; these are impulse valve and delivery valve which can be easily maintained.

Brief History

In 1772 John Whitehurst of Cheshire in the United Kingdom invented a manually controlled precursor of the hydraulic ram called the "pulsation engine". The first one he installed, in 1772 at Oulton, Cheshire, and raised water to a height of 16 ft (4.9 m). He installed another in an Irish property in 1783. He did not patent it, and details are obscure, but it is known to have had an air vessel. The first self-acting ram pump was invented by the Frenchman Joseph Michel Montgolfier (best known as a co-inventor of the hot air balloon) in 1796 for raising water in his paper mill at Voiron. His friend Matthew Boulton took out a British patent on his behalf in 1797. The sons of Montgolfier obtained an English patent for an improved version in 1816, andthis was acquired, together with Whitehurst's design, in 1820 by Josiah Easton, a Somerset-born engineer who had just moved to London.Easton's firm, inherited by his son James (1796– 1871), grew during the nineteenthcentury to become one of the more important engineering manufacturers in the United Kingdom,with a large works at Erith, Kent. They specialized in water supply and sewerage systems world- wide, as well as land drainage projects. Eastons had a good business supplying rams for water supply purposes to large country houses, and also to farms and village communities, and a number of their installations still survived as of 2004. The firm was eventually closed in 1909, but the ram business was continued by James R Easton. In 1929 it was acquired by Green & Carter, of Winchester, Hampshire, who were engaged in the manufacturing and installation of the well-known Vulcan and Vacher Rams. The first US patent was issued to J. Cerneau and S.S. Hallet in 1809. US interest in hydraulic rams picked up around 1840, as further patents were issued and domestic companies started offering rams for sale. Toward the end of the 19th Century, interest waned as electricity and electric pumps became widely available.

Working Principle of Hydraulic Ram Pump

Although hydraulic ram pumps come in a variety of shapes and sizes, they all have the same basic components as shown in Fig. 2. The main parts of a ram pump are hydram body, waste valve, delivery valve, snifter valve, air chamber and relief valve. Ram Pumps have a cyclic pumping action that produces their characteristic beat during operation. The cycle can be divided into three phases; acceleration, delivery and recoil.

Theory on Hydraulic Ramp (Hydram) Pump

Energy Cars, airplanes, light bulb, water pumps, computers, the human body have all something incommon: they need energy to work. This energy can come from many sources such as electricity, fuel, manpower, food. Different technologies are used to transform one source of energy to another. For example, car engines transform the chemical energy of the fuel into mechanical energy allowing wheels to rotate. Another example related to water supply projects is electric pumps: they use electricity to transform electrical energy into potential energy of the lifted water. The potential energy is the energy of every object due to its altitude. The object needs another source of energy to be lifted and will lose its potential energy if it falls. Hydramsare designed to lift water (i.e. give potential energy to the water) from a low cost source of energy. Avoiding using fuel and electricity, the water hammer effect has shown to be efficient and is the principle of hydrams.


From the objective stated, we have come out the solutions from the study of our hydraulic ramp pump (hydram), the modifications and assumptions made were counted and the calculations give the exact answers for this project.From the results obtained, we have found out that:-
a)The best design for our hydram is as shown above in the report.
A hydraulic piston or hydram is a cyclic water pump powered by hydroelectric power. It carries water to a "hydraulic head" (pressure) and flow, and emits water to a higher hydraulic head and lower flow. The device utilizes the water hammer effect to develop pressure which allows a portion of the intake water that feeds the pump to be lifted to a higher point than where the water originally started. The hydraulic piston is sometimes used in remote areas, where there is a low-power hydropower source and a need to pump water to a destination higher than the source. In this situation, the ram is often useful as it does not require any external source of energy other than the kinetic energy of the flowing water.

An alternative to the hydraulic piston is the water driven pump. It can be used if a high flow rate is required at high head ratio. A water driven pump unit is a hydraulic turbine coupled to a water pump. The driving power needed by the pump is generated by the hydraulic turbine from the available low head water power.

Hydraulic ram pump

[Image: 200px-PrincipleHydraulicRam.jpg]

A hydraulic pump is a water pump powered by water with a height difference. In areas where there are natural flows with a difference in water height at a small distance, hydraulic plunger pumps can be used to transport water to higher ground without using electricity or fuel. The hydraulic piston uses the water hammer effect to develop pressure that allows a portion of the incoming water that feeds the pump to rise to a higher point than where the water originally began. Apart from the kinetic energy of water, no other source of energy is needed.

The hydraulic piston pump was invented in 1772 and widely used in the 19th century, but was side-tracked by the advent of the coal-fired steam engine and later by the diesel pumps. In recent years the hydraulic pump has seen renewed interest as it is driven by sustainable energy, and can be produced locally.

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