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ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES OF BUILDING MATERIALS
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.pdf  1452146325-AcousticPropertiesofBuildingMaterials.pdf (Size: 703.49 KB / Downloads: 116)



ABSTRACT
Acoustics in a higher citadel of learning, as a matter of fact as a course under the
department of architecture is a necessity.
This came to life with the need for students to understand the acoustics of spaces
both interior and exterior, as well as to be able to design acoustically functional spaces
that will enhance the intelligibility of sound or speech.
In addition to this, there is a rapid increase in loss of hearing caused by agents of
hearing damage such as threshold shifts, sociocusis, due to an uncontrolled means of
sound propagation. Hence, the need for the study of acoustics and infact the materials
used to enhance it.


0 INTRODUCTION
What is acoustics?
Acoustics is a term sometimes used for the science of sound in general. It is more
commonly used for the special branch of that science, architectural acoustics, which deals
with the construction of enclosed areas so as to enhance the hearing of speech or music.
It could as well be regarded as the branch of architecture that deals with the control of
sound which showcases the reflective, absorptive properties of sound.
Acoustics is a subject that describes all aspects of sound and falls into the fields of
both science and art. The science of sound envelops the technicalities of its generation,
propagation and reception as well as objectively describing its qualities. In the artistic
world, sound plays a large part in terms of the spoken word, music and other auditory
experiences that give us pleasure.
In most cases, the acoustics of a room will be satisfactory if a proper balance
between sound-absorbing and sound-reflecting materials is created. In achieving this,
reverberation as a factor should be taken into consideration.
For modifying the reverberations, the architect has two types of materials, soundabsorbent
and sound-reflecting, to coat the surfaces of ceilings, walls, and floors. Soft
materials such as cork and felt absorb most of the sound that strikes them, although they
may reflect some of the low-frequency sounds. Hard materials such as stone and metals
reflect most of the sound that strikes them. The acoustics of a large auditorium may be
very different when it is full from when it is empty; empty seats reflect sound, whereas an
audience absorbs sound.
Hence, a study of the acoustic properties of various building materials in order to
broaden the scope of the students of architecture and to facilitate the selection of quality
materials that will ensure good acoustics all round a space is needed.
It should however be noted that there are various materials used to achieve a good
acoustic in construction, but for the purpose of this analysis, few number of materials will
be mentioned.
1
Aims and objectives
The study of the acoustic properties of various building materials is to achieve the
following objective;
1. To ascertain precisely, the type of material that will be used to achieve a
particular sound level within a space.
2. To broaden the scope of the student in the field of acoustics.
3. To help in determining the various uses of different materials.
4. To be able to analyze the acoustics of buildings.
5. To know the wide varieties of materials that is available for the said purpose.
6. To be able to solve the problem of acoustics within an interior space as well as the
exterior space.
2.0 BUILDING ACOUSTICS AND MATERIALS
Noise control as the name suggests, envelops the techniques used to minimize the
effects of unwanted sound and thus optimize environmental conditions. In the
construction industry, Building Acoustics is the term which covers this aspect of sound.
Building Acoustics involves both the control of noise within an enclosed space and the
reduction of noise between rooms or from either outside or inside a building.
Building Material is any one of various substances out of which buildings are
constructed. They come in different forms and are also applied in various ways in
building. Materials in building construction for the purpose of this write-up will be
classified under the four major component parts of a building. This includes the
following;
1. walls
2. floors
3. ceilings
4. roofs
2
Components Of Building And Their Materials
1. WALLS: This is regarded as flat side of building or room, a vertical structure
forming an inside partition or an outside surface of a building. It can as well be seen
as a standing structure that surrounds or blocks, a narrow upright structure, usually
built of stone, wood, plaster, or brick, which acts as a
boundary or keeps something in or out. Other
materials used in wall construction include,
▪ Glass (as curtain walls), ▪ Sandcrete blocks, ▪
Plastics, ▪ Tiles (mosaic)
 

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