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Air Pollution Definition Based on System Approach

Air Pollution Definition Based on System Approach

.pdf   Air Pollution.pdf (Size: 2.99 MB / Downloads: 68)

Types of Air Pollution

Personal air exposure
-It refers to exposure to dust, fumes and gases to which an individual exposes himself
when he indulge himself in smoking

Occupational air exposure
It represents the type of exposure of individuals to potentially harmful concentration of
aerosols, vapors, and gases in their working environment.

Community air exposure
-This is most serious, complex, consists of varieties of assortment of pollution sources,
meteorological factors, and wide variety of adverse social, economical, and health

The Earth’s Great Spheres

Lithosphere- The lithosphere contains all of the cold, hard solid land of the
planet's crust (surface), the semi-solid land underneath the crust, and the liquid
land near the center of the planet
Hydrosphere- The hydrosphere contains all the solid, liquid, and gaseous water of
the plane
Biosphere- The biosphere contains all the planet's living things. This sphere includes all of the
microorganisms, plants, and animals of Ear
Atmosphere- The atmosphere contains all the air in Earth's system

It is a mixture of gases that forms a layer of about 250 miles thick around the earth.
- Bottom 10-12 miles (Troposphere) is most important part in terms of
o Weather
o Other aspects of Biogeochemical cycle
- The lowest 600 meters of Troposphere: Air Quality Studies
Composition of Air - 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% carbon dioxide, water, other gases
Divided into four zones:
- Troposphere
- Stratosphere
- Mesosphere
- Thermosphere
Air pollution occurs when harmful substances including particles and biological molecules are introduced into the Earth's atmosphere. May cause illness, allergies or death of humans; It can also cause damage to other living organisms, such as animals and food crops, and can damage the natural or built environment. Human activity and natural processes can generate air pollution. Indoor air pollution and poor urban air quality are listed as two of the world's worst toxic pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute Report, the worst polluted sites. According to the World Health Organization report of 2014, air pollution in 2012 killed around 7 million people worldwide, an estimated estimate by the International Energy Agency.

An air pollutant is a substance in the air that can have adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem. The substance may be solid particles, liquid droplets or gases. A contaminant can be of natural or artificial origin. Contaminants are classified as primary or secondary. Primary pollutants are usually produced from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption. Other examples include carbon monoxide gas from the exhaust of motor vehicles, or sulfur dioxide released from the factories. Secondary contaminants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. Ozone at ground level is a prominent example of a secondary pollutant. Some contaminants can be both primary and secondary: both are emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants.

The risk of air pollution is a function of the danger of the contaminant and the exposure to that pollutant. Exposure to air pollution can be expressed for an individual, for certain groups (eg neighborhoods or children living in a country), or for entire populations. For example, you may want to calculate exposure to a hazardous air pollutant for a geographic area, which includes the various micro-environments and age groups. This can be calculated as an inhalation exposure. This would explain daily exposure in various environments (eg, different indoor micro-environments and outdoor locations). The exposure should include different demographic and age groups, especially infants, children, pregnant women and other sensitive sub-populations. Exposure to an atmospheric pollutant should integrate the atmospheric pollutant concentrations with respect to the time spent in each environment and the respective inhalation rates for each subgroup for each specific time that the subgroup is in the environment and participate in particular activities Cooking, Reading, working, etc.). For example, the inhalation rate of a small child will be less than that of an adult. A vigorous exercising child will have a higher respiration rate than the same child in a sedentary activity. Daily exposure, then, needs to reflect the time spent in each micro-environment and the type of activities in these environments. The concentration of air pollutants in each micro-activity / micro-environmental environment is added to indicate the exposure.

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