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.ppt   ANTY LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM.ppt (Size: 1.38 MB / Downloads: 851)


An anti-lock braking system (ABS) is a safety system on motor vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking while braking.

The Anti-lock Braking System is designed to maintain vehicle control, directional stability and optimum deceleration under severe braking conditions on most road surfaces

It does so by monitoring the rotational speed of each wheel and controlling the brake line pressure to each wheel during braking. This prevents the wheels from locking up.

A rotating road wheel allows the driver to maintain steering control under heavy braking


In today’s world, the braking is the most important system in an automobile. If the brakes fail, the result can be disastrous. Brakes are actually energy conversion devices, which convert the Kinetic energy (momentum) of the vehicle into thermal energy. The use of it leads to command of stopping force ten times as powerful as the force that puts the vehicle in motion. It exerts thousands of pounds of pressure on each of the four brakes. Development of anti-lock braking system uses a computer controlled valves to limit the pressure delivered to each slave cylinder. If a wheel locks up, steering input can not effect the car’s direction. With ABS, no matter how hard the paddle is pressed, each wheel is prevented from locking up. This prevents skidding (and allows the driver to steer while panic braking).Anti-Lock Braking System was further advanced with the introduction of Traction Control System and finally is the stability control system which has to control the vehicle. Almost all automobile manufacturers offer these systems on their select models. In this paper an attempt has been made to present the concept of anti-lock braking system along with Traction Control System with added technologies and their procedures and maintenance. An example of LUCAS-GIRLING ANTILOCK BRAKING SYSTEM had also been explained. The area still remains a challenge for automobile engineers.
In the last decade there has been tremendous growth and expansion of braking system in terms of technology, design, implementation etc. In recent years, brakes have changed greatly in design. Disc brakes, used for years for front wheel application, are fast replacing drum brakes on the rear wheel of modern cars. The greatest advantage of disc brakes is that they provide significantly better resistance to “brake fade” compared to drum type braking system. Brake fade is a temporary condition caused by high temperature generated by repeated hard braking. Disc brakes allow greater air ventilation compared to drum brakes as they rapidly fling off and water that they are exposed to , and so they can be well ventilated.

Anti-lock braking system, originally developed for aircrafts braking system, reduce wear and tear on aircrafts tyres after landing, caused by flat spot. When a driver of a vehicle hits conventional brakes hard, the wheels may lock causing the vehicle to skid, especially on wet and slippery roads. ABS provides the capability for shorter stopping distances and the ability to steer and to maintain control during hard braking, especially on wet and slippery surfaces. Anti-locks were first used on airplanes beginning in the 1950s and have been extensively used on large trucks in European countries since the early 1980s. However ABS have only recently become widely available in cars , the first car to have electronic anti-lock braking system as standard equipment were the 1985 Mercedes-Benz S-class models. Front and rear wheel anti locks were available as standard or optional equipment on about thirty domestic and foreign car models by the 1987 model year. About 18% of new cars sold in 1991 model year had anti locks , 32% in 1992 model year and today it has increased up to 90% and will continue to grow.

An improvement in ABS technology now allows some system to prevent wheel spin when accelerating on wet or slippery surface. This capability is known as Traction Control .Some of these systems also provides addition control when cornering or changing.

Attached Files
.doc   Anti-lock Braking System[1].doc (Size: 334.5 KB / Downloads: 242)

to get information about the topic automatic braking system full report ,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow
please send me the ppt slides for antilock systems..

.pdf   ANTI-LOCK BRAKE.pdf (Size: 418.11 KB / Downloads: 280)


When the brake pedal is depressed during driving, the wheel speed decreases and the vehicle
speed does as well. The decrease in the vehicle speed, however, is not always proportional to the
decrease in the wheel speed. The non-correspondence between the wheel speed and vehicle
speed is called “slip” and the magnitude of the slip is expressed by the “slip ratio” which is defined
as follows:
Slip ratio = (Vehicle speed – Wheel speed)/Vehicle speed × 100%
When the slip ratio is 0%, the vehicle speed corresponds exactly to the wheel speed. When it is
100%, the wheels are completely locking (rotating at a zero speed) while the vehicle is moving.
The braking effectiveness is represented by the “coefficient of friction” between the tire and road
surface.The larger the coefficient, the higher the braking effectiveness. The diagram below shows
the relationship between the coefficient of friction and the slip ratio for two different road surface conditions
(asphalt-paved road and icy road), assuming that the same tires are used for both the conditions
and the vehicles are moving forward. Although the braking effectiveness (coefficient of
friction) depends on the road surface condition as shown and also on the type of the tire, its peak
range generally corresponds to the 8 — 30% range of the slip ratio.
The ABS controls the fluid pressure to each wheel so that a coefficient of friction corresponding to
this slip ratio range is maintained.


Each of the ABS wheel speed sensors detects the speed of the corresponding wheel. The sensor
consists of a permanent magnet, coil and tone wheel. The magnetic flux produced by the permanent
magnet changes as each tooth of the tone wheel (which rotates together with the wheel) passes
in front of the magnet’s pole piece. The changing magnetic flux induces voltages at a frequency
corresponding to the wheel speed.


The EBD system utilizes the function of the conventional ABS. This system prevents premature
locking of the rear wheels by using electronic control instead of a proportioning valve. The system
provides a feature to optimize the brake force distribution to the front and rear wheels according to
change in loading conditions or displacement of the center of gravity during deceleration.
The ABSCM calculates the optimum brake force distribution from the difference in speed between
the front and rear wheels. Based on the results, the ABSCM controls the rear wheel brake pressure
through the ABS hydraulic unit (H/U) to achieve the optimum brake force distribution suitable for the
driving condition.


ABS control module section (ABSCM)

The ABSCM contains two micro control modules (MCMs) which communicate with each other. Both
the MCMs process the same program and each MCM monitors the other’s outputs. If a mismatch
occurs between their outputs, the ABSCM cuts off the system and activate the fail-safe function.
The ABSCM can store a maximum of 3 diagnostic trouble codes in a ROM. If more than 3 faults
have occurred, only the 3 most recent failures are stored and others are erased. Trouble diagnostic
trouble codes remain stored until they are internally or externally erased.
The ABSCM has a test routine (sequence control pattern) which facilitates checking of the hydraulic
control unit.

ABS control

Using primarily the wheel speed data from each ABS wheel speed sensor and secondarily the vehicle
deceleration rate data from the G sensor as parameters, the ABSCM generates a simulated
vehicle speed when there is a risk of wheel lock-up. Using the simulated vehicle speed (called “dummy”
vehicle speed) as a reference, the ABSCM determines the state of the wheel in terms of the
tendency toward lock-up.If the result shows that the wheels are about to lock, the ABSCM issues
commands to energize or de-energize the solenoid valves and activate the motor pump of the H/U
to modulate the brake fluid pressures that act on the wheel cylinders, thereby preventing the wheels
from locking.
The ABSCM controls the right and left front wheel fluid pressures independently and the rear wheel
fluid pressures based on the wheel which is the most likely to lock (select-low control). The STi models
have an additional function which independently controls the rear wheels according to the value
sent from the lateral G sensor.
Functions available using SUBARU select monitor
When the SUBARU select monitor is connected, the ABSCM allows it
To read out analog data
To read out ON/OFF data
To read out or erase diagnostic trouble codes
To read out data showing conditions under which a trouble code has been stored (freeze frame
To initiate ABS sequence control pattern
Indication functions
Under the control of the ABSCM, the ABS warning light provides the following three indication functions:
ABS fault alerting
Diagnostic trouble code indication (by flashing in the diagnosis mode)
Valve ON/OFF indication (when sequence control pattern is initiated)
"Coach affordable has been able to resist the risk of economic downturn, in fact, now buy luxury goods in trend rational." JonathanSeliger said.
According to introducing, at present in China Coach 96 stores, of which 79 home is located in the mainland of China 36 home city, the Coach still insist on open every year 30 shops speed, quickly controlling China's two, three line city. Compared with other competitor, one of the strengths of Coach lies in its multi-channel distribution strategy, this means that the Coach can in the department store, retail shop, store and factory ZhiXiaoDian sell products. In his view, China's two, three line city has considerable purchasing power, the Chinese market in the near future will exceed Japan.

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