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Biometrics Security System Full Download Seminar Report and Paper Presentation

Biometrics Security System

Abstract :

With the increasing use of electronics and electronic commerce in our day-to-day lives, the importance of fraud-proof identification and recognition systems for use in security applications has grown .The improved understanding of biological systems and the ability to model them using computer algorithms has led to utilization of biometrics in authentication systems. Voice, Iris, Face, Signature, Hand Geometry are the biometrics that have been studied and applied to various kinds of identification and authentication systems.
Biometrics is a means of using parts of the human body as a kind of permanent password. Technology has advanced to the point where computer systems can record and recognize the patterns, hand shapes, ear lobe contours, and a host of other physical characteristics. Using this biometrics, laptop and other portable devices can be empowered with the ability to instantly verify your identity and deny access to everybody else.

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With the increasing use of electronics and electronic commerce in our day-to-day lives, the importance of fraud-proof identification and recognition systems for use in security applications has grown .The improved understanding of biological systems and the ability to model them using computer algorithms has led to utilization of biometrics in authentication systems. Voice, Iris, Face, Signature, Hand Geometry are the biometrics that have been studied and applied to various kinds of identification and authentication systems.
Biometrics is a means of using parts of the human body as a kind of permanent password. Technology has advanced to the point where computer systems can record and recognize the patterns, hand shapes, ear lobe contours, and a host of other physical characteristics. Using this biometrics, laptop and other portable devices can be empowered with the ability to instantly verify your identity and deny access to everybody else.


Biometrics is a rapidly evolving technology that facilitates the automatic identification of an individual based on his or her physiological or behavioral characteristics.
These characteristics are referred to as biometric identifiers and are unique to each and every one of us. Physiological or physical identifiers do not change overtime and include a personâ„¢s fingerprint, facial features, iris, and retina patterns, along with geometric shape of your hand. Behavioral identifiers do change over time or with mood and include a persons voice, signature and the way one types at keyboard.
As networking grows, so does the number of electronic transactions used for both conducting business and gathering information. This fact has led to realization that the traditional methods involving passwords and pin numbers used to gain entry in these networks, no longer provides adequate security against unauthorized access to sensitive and / or personal data.
Users PIN and passwords can be forgotten and token-based ids such as smart cards, employee badges, passports and drivers license can be lost, stolen or forged. Biometric identification systems provide a solution to these problems, since they require the user to be physically present at the point of identification and unique biometric identifiers are based on who you are, as opposed to what you know or have in your possession.
1. Biometrics refers to the method of automatically identifying or verifying identity based upon behavioral or physical traits. It is the science and technology of measuring and statistically analyzing biological data, data that is represented in humans by patterns unique to every individual. [1]
2. Biometrics identification technologies that measure the human body. Biometrics include finger scan (finger print), Iris scan, retina scan, voice verification, hand geometry and signature verification. [2]
3. Biometrics identification devices rely on unique physical characteristics, such as fingerprints, hand shape, or facial appearance to screen and verified individualâ„¢s authority for access and other kind of transactions. [3]

4. Biometrics is a science of measuring the unique physical characteristics of a person such as voice, a face or a fingerprint. These personal features are analyzed and stored as bioprints in a reference database, on a smart card or an embedded chip. They are used to verify the identity of the person by comparing them to the previously stored bioprints. [4]


The security field uses three different types of authentication:
-Something you know”a password, PIN, or piece of information
-Something you have”a card key, smart card, or token
-Something you are”a biometric.
Of these, a biometric is the most secure and convenient authentication tool. It can't be borrowed, stolen, or forgotten, and forging one is practically impossible.
Biometrics measure individuals' unique physical or behavioral characteristics to recognize or authenticate their identity. Common physical biometrics include fingerprints; hand or palm geometry; and retina, iris, or facial characteristics. Behavioral characters include signature, voice, keystroke pattern, and gait. Of this class of biometrics, technologies for signature and voice are the most developed.

Figure 1 : Process involved in using a biometric system for security

Capture the chosen biometric; Process the biometric and enroll the biometric template; Store the template; Live-scan the chosen biometric; Process the biometric and extract the biometric template; Match the scanned biometric against stored templates; Provide a matching score to business applications; Record a secure audit trail with respect to system use.







Figure 2 : The biometric model
A generic biometric model consists of five subsystems, namely data collection, transmission, signal processing, decision-making, and data storage.
Data collection involves use of sensors to detect and measure individualâ„¢s physiological or behavioral characteristics. The measured biometric must be unique and repeatable over multiple measurements. However, technical parameters of sensors, as well as ergonomics of device and the manner in which the biometric characteristics is presented to effect the measurement,
could eventually impact the outcome of the system. For instance, background noise and acoustic of the environment may impact a speech recognition system, while the pressure applied to the finger print scanner might also affect the data.
Not all biometric systems process and store data on the measuring device. Often measurement is made using a relatively simple device to computer or server for processing and/or storage. Depending on the system, data may be relatively large and thus would need to be compressed for quick transfer. The compression algorithm needs to be selected carefully; otherwise it could introduce some artifacts that could impact the decision process.
The signal processing subunit uses feature extraction algorithms to extract true biometric information from the sample in the presence of noise introduced in the data collection and transmission. Additional measurements are made if any flaw or corruption is noted, to ensure good quality.

Pattern matching involves comparing the feature sample to a stored sample. (Biometric data is stored locally on a biometric device, some central database/ server, or on a smart card issued to users) The result of comparison is sent to the decision system to determine the match.
The decision subsystem uses the statistical methods to confirm the authentication if variance between the sample and template is within a certain threshold.

1. Fingerprint Verification [1,4]
There are variety of approaches to fingerprint verification. Some of them try to emulate the traditional police method of matching minutiae, others are straight pattern matching devices, and some adopt a unique approach all of their own, including moiré Fringe patterns and ultrasonic. Some of them can detect when a live finger is presented, some cannot.There is a greater variety of fingerprint devices available than any other biometric at present.

Figure 3 : Verification by finger scanning and its comparison with database
Potentially capable of good accuracy , fingerprint devices can also suffer from usage errors among insufficiently disciplined users such as might be the case with large user bases. One must also consider the transducer user interface and how this would be affected by large scale usage in a variety of environments. Fingerprint verification may be a good choice for in house systems where adequate explanation and training can be provided to users and where the system is operated within a controlled environment. It is not surprising that the workstation access application area seems to be based almost exclusively around fingerprints, due to the relatively low cost, small size (easily integrated into keyboards) and ease of integration.
2. Voice Verification [5]
Voice authentication is not based on voice recognition but on voice-to-print authentication, where complex technology transforms voice into text. Voice biometrics has the most potential for growth, because it requires no new hardware”most PCs already contain a microphone. However, poor quality and ambient noise can affect verification. In addition, the enrollment procedure has often been more complicated than with other biometrics, leading to the perception that voice verification is not user friendly. Therefore, voice authentication software needs improvement. One day, voice may become an additive technology to finger-scan technology. Because many people see finger scanning as a higher authentication form, voice biometrics will most likely be relegated to replacing or enhancing PINs, passwords, or account names.

3. Retinal Scanning [7]
An established technology where the unique patterns of the retina are scanned by a low intensity light source via an optical coupler. Retinal scanning has proved to be quite accurate in use but does require the user to look into a receptacle and focus on a live of the eye related biometrics. It utilises a fairly conventional ccd camera element and requires no intimate contact between user and reader. In addition it has the potential for higher than average template matching performance. It has been demonstrated to work with spectacles in place and with a variety of ethnic groups and is one of the few devices, which can work well in identification mode. Ease of use and system integration have not traditionally been strong points with the iris scanning devices, but we can expect to see improvements in these areas as new products are introduced. 4. Signature Verification [5]
Signature verification analyzes the way a user signs his/her name. Signing features such as speed, velocity, and pressure are as important as the finished signature's static shape. Signature verification enjoys a synergy with existing processes that other biometrics do not. People are used to signatures as a means of transaction-related identity verification, and most would see nothing unusual in extending this to encompass biometrics. Signature verification devices are reasonably accurate in operation and obviously lend themselves to applications where a signature is an accepted identifier. Surprisingly, relatively few significant signature applications have emerged compared with other biometric methodologies. But if your application fits, it is a technology worth considering.
5. Facial Recognition [4]
Face recognition analyzes facial characteristics. It requires a digital camera to develop a facial image of the user for authentication. This technique has attracted considerable interest, although many people don't completely understand its capabilities. Some vendors have made extravagant claims”which are very difficult, if not impossible, to substantiate in practice”for facial recognition devices. Because facial scanning needs an extra peripheral not customarily included with basic PCs, it is more of a niche market for network authentication. However, the casino industry has capitalized on this technology to create a facial database of scam artists for quick detection by security personnel.
6. Hand Geometry [4]
Hand geometry involves analyzing and measuring the shape of the hand. These biometric offers a good balance of performance characteristics and are relatively easy to use. It might be suitable where there are more users or where users access the system infrequently and are perhaps less disciplined in their approach to the system.
Accuracy can be very high if desired and flexible performance tuning and configuration can accommodate a wide range of applications. Organizations are using hand geometry readers in various scenarios, including time and attendance recording. Ease of integration into other systems and processes, coupled with ease of use, and makes hand geometry an obvious first step for many biometric projects.
7. Software Analysis [3]
Smart protector allows software products to be simply and effectively protective against piracy. Part of application code, completely developed in VB 6.0 is recompiled and transferred at run time executed into a smart card where, due to physical protection, it is in accessible .Smart protector makes it possible also for developers who are not expert of smart card technology to set up, in a very short time, protected and non duplicable software applications.
An eye is the size of a ping “pong light enters the eye through the pupil, and travels through the lens and the vitreous body to that optic nerve. The optic nerve carries the image of the brain for interpretation. The eye has three chambers known as anterior (front), posterior (back), and the vitreous body. The iris is located at the back end of the anterior chamber.

Figure 4 : Typical structure of an eye
The front chamber contains aqueous humor (a watery fluid). This fluid carries nutrients to different tissues in front of the eye. The cornea is located at the front of this chamber; the cornea is the clear part of the eye. The lens is located at the front of the posterior (back) chamber and is directly behind the iris. This chamber contains a thick gel-like fluid called vitreous humor. This fluid helps to maintain the shape of the eye.
An iris based biometric involves analyzing features found in the colored ring of tissue that surrounds the pupil. Iris scanning, uses a fairly conventional camera element and requires no close contact between the user and the reader. In addition, it has the potential for higher than average template -matching performance. Iris biometrics work with glasses in place.
Iris scanning is undoubtedly the less intrusive of the eye related biometrics. It utilizes a fairly conventional CCD camera element and requires no intimate contact between user and reader .It has been demonstrated to work with spectacles in place and with a variety of ethnic groups and is one of the few devices, which can work well in identification mode.

A typical iris scan takes about 30 sec to do and only about two seconds for verification each time thereafter, a camera located about three feet from the subject focuses on and scans the iris from one side and converts this scan into a template i.e. stored for future use.

The final template is based upon unique visible qualities of the iris.

Rings, furrows, freckles-that are characteristics of the individual. Thus when a completed scan is used for identification or verification, actual iris photographs are not compared, but rather digital images of the unique features of these irises.

Robust representations for pattern recognition must be invariant to changes in size, position and orientation of the pattern in the case of iris recognition, this means we must create a representation that is invariant to the optical size of the irises in the image; the size of pupil within the iris; location of the iris within the image; and the iris orientation, which depends upon head tilt, tort ional eye rotation within itâ„¢s socket and camera angles, compounded with imaging through pan / tilt eye finding mirrors that introduces additional image rotation factor as function of eye position , camera position and mirror angles. Fortunately, invariance of all these factors can readily be achieved.

The iris has about 266 unique spots that are used in template construction, versus an average of 13-60 spots employed in another biometric technologies. This is encoded into 512 byte digitized record code known as IRISCODE. It is stored as hexadecimal code in database & can be used in verification at some access point.

Figure 5 : A IRISCODE sample
More over, any differences between a personâ„¢s right and left eyes are statically insignificant so it does not even matter which one is photographed.
The error rate with iris scanning is 1 in 1.2 million and the odds of two irises having the same codes is 1 in 10^52. This said, iris scanning is so accurate that
the entire planet could be enrolled in an iris database and there would still be only marginal chance of a false identification. Even if a person is blinking at the scan and 2/3 of the iris is blocked, the error rate is still an impressive 1 in 100,000 (or the scan can be redone in under a minute).

Whilst individual biometric devices ans systems have their own operating methodology, there are some generalizations one can make as to what typically happens within a biometric systems implementation.

Before we can verify an individualâ„¢s identity by a biometric we must first capture a sample of the chosen biometric . This sample is referred to as biometric template against which subsequent sample provided at verification time are compared. The template is then reference against an identifier in order to recall it ready for comparison with a live sample at the transaction point. The enrolment procedure and quality of the resultant template are critical factor in the overall success of a biometric application. The size of biometric template itself has some impact on this, with popular methodologies between 9 bytes and 1.5K.

The possible options are as follows :
1) Within the biometric reader device
2) Remotely in a central repository
3) On a portable token such as chip card

The verification process requires the user to claim an identity by either entering a PIN or presenting a token, and then verify this claim by providing the live biometric to be compared against the claimed reference template. There will be a resulting match or no match accordingly.
1. Algorithms developed by John Daugman at Cambridge are today the basis for all iris recognition systems worldwide.
2. In America and Japan, the main applications have been entry control, ATMs, and government programs.
3. In Britain, The National wide Building Society introduced iris recognition within its cash dispensing machines (in lieu of PIN numbers) in1998.
4. Many airports worldwide have recently installed these algorithms for passenger screening and immigration control, including Heathrow, Schiphol, Frankfurt, and Charlotte airports.

Figure 6 : Iris scanning enabled ATM

Figure 7 : An AUTHENTICAM Used for iris scanning
1.Iris patterns possess a high degree of randomness
2.Variability, entropy, uniqueness
3.Patterns apparently stable throughout life
4.Encoding and decision-making are tractable
5.Image analysis and encoding time: 1 second
6.Decidability index (d -prime): dâ„¢=7.3to 11.4
7.Search period: 100,000 iris codes per second
1. Small target (1cm) to acquire from a distance (1m)
2. Moving target ¦within another¦on yet another
3. Located behind a curved, wet, reflecting surface
4. Obscured by eyelashes, lenses, reflections
5. Partially occluded by eyelids, often drooping
6. Illumination should not be visible or bright

Biometric technology is one area that no segment of the IT industry can afford to ignore. Biometrics provides security benefits across the spectrum, from IT vendors to end users, and from security system developers to security system users. Different technologies may be appropriate for different applications, depending on perceived user profiles, the need to interface with other systems or databases, environmental conditions, and a host of other application-specific parameters.
Table 1: Comparison of biometrics [2]
Characteristic Fingerprints Hand
Geometry Retina Iris Face Signature Voice
Ease of Use High High Low Medium Medium High High
Error incidence Dryness, dirt, age Hand injury, age Glasses Poor Lighting Lighting, age, glasses, hair Changing signatures Noise, colds, weather
Accuracy High High Very High Very High High High High
Cost * * * * * * *
User acceptance Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium High
Required security level High Medium High Very High Medium Medium Medium
Long-term stability High Medium High High Medium Medium Medium
*The large number of factors involved makes a simple cost comparison impractical.
Some biometric devices are not user friendly. For example, users without proper training may experience difficulty aligning their head with a device for enrolling and matching facial templates.
5.2 ACCURACY [2,5]
Vendors often use two different methods to rate biometric accuracy: false-acceptance rate or false-rejection rate. Both methods focus on the system's ability to allow limited entry to authorized users. However, these measures can vary significantly, depending on how you adjust the sensitivity of the mechanism that matches the biometric. For example, you can require a tighter match between the measurements of hand geometry and the user's template. This will probably decrease the false-acceptance rate, but at the same time can increase the false-rejection rate. So be careful to understand how vendors arrive at quoted values of FAR and FRR.
False accept rates (FAR) indicate the likelihood that an impostor may be falsely accepted by the system.
False reject rates (FRR) indicate the likelihood that the genuine user may be rejected by the system.
Because FAR and FRR are interdependent, it is more meaningful to plot them against each other, as shown in figure. Each point on the plot represents a hypothetical system's performance at various sensitivity settings. With such a
plot, you can compare these rates to determine the crossover error rate. The lower the CER, the more accurate the system.

Figure 9 : Crossover error rate attempts to combine two measures of biometric accuracy
Generally, physical biometrics is more accurate than behavioral biometrics.
5.3 COST
Cost components include :-
Biometric capture hardware
Back-end processing power to maintain the database
Research and testing of the biometric system
Installation, including implementation team salaries
Mounting, installation, connection, and user system integration costs
User education, often conducted through marketing campaigns



Bioenable Technology, Pune, is a software company that develops biometric products to cater to tough Indian working conditions and environments. The firm has developed intelligent biometric solutions for physical access control, banking transaction, timing, and attendance applications.
Siemens Information System Limited (SISL), Banglore, has developed a text-independent autonomous speech recognition system to identify and authorise a speaker by analyzing his voice. Central forensic laboratories, Chandigarh, uses this system to track down and identify criminals by comparing their voice samples using SISL software. Other innovations of SISL include fingerprint identification and management system (FIMs), language-independent speech recognition system, and optical character recognition system.
Axis Software, Pune, deals in fingerprint, iris and face recognition technology and is planning to add voice recognition technology to its range of voice authentication products and systems. The axis system stores biometric records in an encrypted template in digital form. The record by itself is of no use to a stealer and cannot be reconstructed to reveal a persons identity to someone else.
Jaypeetex, Mumbai, has introduced biometric technologies for security, access control, timing, and attendance applications.
Biometric society of India (INBIOS), affiliated to international society of computational biology (ISCB), provides innovative professional solutions and services dedicated to bioinformatics.

Internet security: Litronix, USA, a leading provider of public key infrastructure (PKI) based internet security solutions, has developed biometric identification techniques for use in electronic data applications such as digital network and smart cards. The smart card, integrating voice and handwritten functions, incorporates the appropriate biometric template to deliver the final match and authorization. The company plans to incorporate capture, manipulation, enrollment and extraction features in smart card reader also.
Windows Biometrics: Microsoft has announced plans to integrate biometric authentication technology in future versions of its windows operating systems. For this it has acquired I/O software Inc.s biometric API technology (BAPI) and secures suites core authentication technology. The software will enable windows users to log on and conduct secure e-commerce transactions using a combination of fingerprint, iris pattern, and voice recognition instead of password.
Net Nanny Software International has developed biometric software to provide extra security to Windows NT networks. The biopassword log on feature for Windows NT will back client/server biometrics application to recognize a users typing pattern and use it to authenticate the user to the network. The software uses a mathematical algorithm to record pressure, speed, and rhythm as a user name and password.
Biometric smart cards: Polaroid and Atmel have developed secure identity cards that merge ultra-secure smart cards, fingerprint verification, biometric identification, and digital imaging. These cards will be used in ecommerce, online, remote access, and any it environment where authentication is required.
Biometrics cellular: fujistu microelectronics has developed an innovative fingerprint identification system that combines sweep sensor technology with advanced algorithms to provide a powerful, dependable, easy to use authentication for vices. A single fingerprint sweep across the sensor captures features to rapidly authenticate users of cell phones and PDAs.

There are many views concerning potential biometric applications, some popular examples being: [1,5] ATM machine use :
Most of the leading banks have been experimenting with biometrics for ATM machine use and as a general means of combating card fraud. Surprisingly, these experiments have rarely consisted of carefully integrated devices into a common process, as could easily be achieved with certain biometric devices. Previous comments in this paper concerning user psychology come to mind here and one wonders why wehave not seen a more professional and carefully considered implementation from this sector. The banks will of course have a view concerning the level of fraud and the cost of combating it via a technology solution such as biometrics. They will also express concern about potentially alienating customers with such an approach. However, it still surprises many in the biometric industry that the banks and financial institutions have so far failed to embrace this technology with any enthusiasm. Travel and tourism :
There are many in this industry who have the vision of a multi application card for travelers which, incorporating a biometric, would enable them to participate in various frequent flyer and border control systems as well as paying for their air ticket, hotel room, hire care etc., all with one convenient token.
Technically this is eminently possible, but from a political and commercial point of view there are still many issues to resolve, not the least being who would own the card, be responsible for administration and so on. These may not be insurmountable problems and perhaps we may see something along these lines emerge. A notable challenge in this respect would be packaging such an initiative in a way that would be truly attractive for users. Public identity cards :

A biometric incorporated into a multi purpose public ID card would be useful in a number of scenarios if one could win public support for such a scheme. Unfortunately, in this country as in others there are huge numbers of individuals who definitely do not want to be identified. This ensures that any such proposal would quickly become a political hot potato and a nightmare for the minister concerned. You may consider this a shame or a good thing, depending on you point of view. From a dispassionate technology perspective it represents something of a lost opportunity, but this is of course nothing new. Itâ„¢s interesting that certain local authorities in the UK have issued Ëœcitizenâ„¢ cards with which named cardholders can receive various benefits including discounts at local stores and on certain services. These do not seem to have been seriously challenged, even though they are in effect an ID card.

The security requirements of the future require a much higher level of physical verification and attention to increasingly sophisticated fraud and electronic hacking. Smart ID cards provide this ultra high level of security in the familiar ID card format everyone is used to.
No more the nuisance of forgotten passwords and ID codes, biometric based authentication is here. Your fingerprints, iris pattern, and voice will verify your identity at ATMs, airports, etc. You can unlock your house or withdraw money from your bank with just a blink of eye, a tap of your finger, or by just showing your face.


[1] Biometrics : Journal of International Biometric Society
[2] The Biometrics Constrium ¦¦¦¦¦..May 2002
[3] Electronics For You ¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦June 2002
[6] http://homepage.ntlworldavanti

Page No.
5.1 EASE OF USE 19
5.3 COST 20

please read for more about Biometrics Security System

.pptx   BIOMETRICS SECURITY.pptx (Size: 952.23 KB / Downloads: 129)

Presented By:M. S. Wakade



The prevailing techniques of user authentication have some limitations.
Biometric property is an intrinsic property of an individual.
Biometrics can provide the security advantages of long passwords.
Limited number of biometric features (one face, ten fingers, two eyes).

Biometric System Components
A mechanism to scan and capture a digital or
analog image .
Software for storing, processing and comparing
the image .
An interface with the applications system that will use the result to confirm an individual’s identity

Biometric System Process
Extraction from biometric image to template.

Fingerprint Authentication
Uniqueness and a Means of Positive Identification.
Print patterns (Made from thirty different types of minutia points ):
~ Loops
~ Arches
~ Whorls

Cold finger
Dry/oily finger
High/low humidity
Angle of placement
Pressure of placement
Location of finger on platen
Poorly placed core

The Algorithm

The Algorithm

The first step is location of the iris by a dedicated camera no more than 3 feet from the eye.
After the camera situates the eye, the algorithm narrows in from the right and left of the iris to locate its outer edge.
It simultaneously locates the inner edge of the iris (at the pupil), excluding the lower 90 degrees because of inherent moisture and lighting issues .
The monochrome camera uses both visible and infrared light, the latter of which is located in the 700-900 nm range (this is in the lower range of IR).
The false acceptance rate for the iris recognition system is 1 in 1.2 million and the false rejection rate is 0%

Voice authentication
Speech production organs:
Laryngeal pharynx
Oral pharynx
Oral cavity
Nasal pharynx
Nasal cavity

Critical conditions
Who permanently lose their voices
Who have done surgery
Factors like
Medical conditions
Emotional state
Hence not use in large scale

ATM machine use
Workstation and network access
Travels and tourism
Internet transactions
Telephone transactions.
Public identity cards.

Biometrics can be used for accurate identification
Initial cost is high
Biometrics are easier to use
Biometrics can’t be forgotten or left at home
Biometrics don’t have to be changed periodically like passwords.

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.ppt   BIOMETRIC SECURITY THROUGH GAIT-ANALYSIS.ppt (Size: 3.78 MB / Downloads: 168)

Submitted To:
Dr. Harsh Verma
Head of Department
Computer Science & Engineering

Submitted By:
Akhil Kumar Singh
09203001( CSE)
M.Tech-Final year
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
NIT Jalandhar

Introduction of Biometric-System
Performance measures of Biometric security
Introduction of Gait-Analysis
Combining gait with other Biometrics
Security strength of gait-recognition
Proposed Work

The word biometric can be defined as "life - measure." It is used in security and access control applications to mean measurable physical characteristics of a person that can be checked on an automated basis.
“A biometric system is an automated method for identifying or authenticating the identity of a living person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic.”
The physiological characteristics are relatively stable, such as a fingerprint, hand silhouette, iris pattern, blood vessel pattern of the retina, or DNA fingerprint. Those biometric traits are essentially fixed and do not change over time.
Behavioral characteristic are more prone to changes depending on factors such as aging, injuries, or even mood.

i seminar paper on Biometric security system
following post contains a document.
Submitted By
G.V. Ramesh

.doc   biometrics.doc (Size: 65.5 KB / Downloads: 115)
The word biometric can be defined as "life - measure." It is used in security and access control applications to mean measurable physical characteristics of a person that can be checked on an automated basis.
Although you may not think about it, your driver's license contains biometric information about you. Your height, weight, hair color and eye color are all physical characteristics that can easily be checked. However, your height changes with age (16 year old drivers get taller, senior citizens get shorter). Your hair color changes naturally (and on purpose). You can wear colored contact lenses that change your eye color; everyone's weight fluctuates over time.
Biometric data that does not change
Security personnel look for biometric data that does not change over the course of your life; that is, they look for physical characteristics that stay constant and that are difficult to fake or change on purpose.
Most of us can remember when biometric security checks were the stuff of science fiction or action movies like James Bond. However, biometric identification is becoming commonplace as hardware and software come down in price.
Characteristics of successful biometric identification methods
The following factors are needed to have a successful biometric identification method:
• The physical characteristic should not change over the course of the person's lifetime
• The physical characteristic must identify the individual person uniquely
• The physical characteristic needs to be easily scanned or read in the field, preferably with inexpensive equipment, with an immediate result
• The data must be easily checked against the actual person in a simple, automated way.
Other characteristics that may be helpful in creating a successful biometric identification scheme are:
• Ease of use by individuals and system operators
• The willing (or knowing) participation of the subject is not required
• Uses legacy data (such as face recognition or voice analysis).
Biometric identification systems
Biometric identification systems can be grouped based on the main physical characteristic that lends itself to biometric identification:
Fingerprint identification
Fingerprint ridges are formed in the womb; you have fingerprints by the fourth month of fetal development. Once formed, fingerprint ridges are like a picture on the surface of a balloon. As the person ages, the fingers get do get larger. However, the relationship between the ridges stays the same, just like the picture on a balloon is still recognizable as the balloon is inflated.
Hand geometry
Hand geometry is the measurement and comparison of the different physical characteristics of the hand. Although hand geometry does not have the same degree of permanence or individuality as some other characteristics, it is still a popular means of biometric authentication.
• Palm Vein Authentication
This system uses an infrared beam to penetrate the users hand as it is waved over the system; the veins within the palm of the user are returned as black lines. Palm vein authentication has a high level of authentication accuracy due to the complexity of vein patterns of the palm. Because the palm vein patterns are internal to the body, this would be a difficult system to counterfeit. Also, the system is contactless and therefore hygienic for use in public areas.
• Retina scan
A retina scan provides an analysis of the capillary blood vessels located in the back of the eye; the pattern remains the same throughout life. A scan uses a low-intensity light to take an image of the pattern formed by the blood vessels. Retina scans were first suggested in the 1930's.
• Iris scan
An iris scan provides an analysis of the rings, furrows and freckles in the colored ring that surrounds the pupil of the eye. More than 200 points are used for comparison. Iris scans were proposed in 1936, but it was not until the early 1990's that algorithms for iris recognition were created (and patented). All current iris recognition systems use these basic patents, held by Iridian Technologies.
• Face recognition
Facial characteristics (the size and shape of facial characteristics, and their relationship to each other). Although this method is the one that human beings have always used with each other, it is not easy to automate it. Typically, this method uses relative distances between common landmarks on the face to generate a unique "faceprint."
• Signature
Although the way you sign your name does change over time, and can be consciously changed to some extent, it provides a basic means of identification.
• Voice analysis
The analysis of the pitch, tone, cadence and frequency of a person's voice.
Biometric technology on the leading edge
Some leading edge applications:
• Fingerprint scanners (and the necessary software to store and compare fingerprints) have already been installed in laptop computers and PDAs like the iPaq.
• Sensors installed in automobiles can identify the driver, and adjust mirrors, seat positions and climate controls.
• Special readers can measure various elements of hand geometry, comparing the result with data on file for each person (See Biometric Hand Reader for an example.)
• Surveillance cameras can search crowds for missing persons or criminal suspects.
• Face recognition software can be modified to recognize gestures, leading to improved assistive technologies for quadriplegic patients.
Biometric security and business ethics
A variety of ethical concerns with biometric identification methods have been registered by users:
• Some biometric identification methods are relatively intrusive (like retina scans)
• The gathering of biometric information like fingerprints is associated with criminal behavior in the minds of many people
• Traditionally, detailed biometric information has been gathered by large institutions, like the military or police; people may feel a loss of privacy or personal dignity
• People feel embarrassed when rejected by a public sensor
• Automated face recognition in public places could be used to track everyone's movements without their knowledge or consent.
There are also many questions about how this data will be stored and used:
• How will masses of biometric data be stored? These are not fingerprint cards stored in a secured building; this is easily moved and duplicated electronic information. How will this information be safeguarded?
• Who will have access to this information? Will companies be allowed access to face biometrics, letting them use security cameras to positively identify customers on a routine basis? How would you feel about walking into a store you've never been in before, only to be greeted by name by a sales associate who has just read a summary of all of your recent purchases?
Biometric authentication: what method works best?
There does not appear to be any one method of biometric data gathering and reading that does the "best" job of ensuring secure authentication. Each of the different methods of biometric identification have something to recommend them. Some are less invasive, some can be done without the knowledge of the subject, some are very difficult to fake.
Face recognition
Of the various biometric identification methods, face recognition is one of the most flexible, working even when the subject is unaware of being scanned. It also shows promise as a way to search through masses of people who spent only seconds in front of a "scanner" - that is, an ordinary digital camera.
Face recognition systems work by systematically analyzing specific features that are common to everyone's face - the distance between the eyes, width of the nose, position of cheekbones, jaw line, chin and so forth. These numerical quantities are then combined in a single code that uniquely identifies each person.
Fingerprint identification
Fingerprints remain constant throughout life. In over 140 years of fingerprint comparison worldwide, no two fingerprints have ever been found to be alike, not even those of identical twins. Good fingerprint scanners have been installed in PDAs like the iPaq Pocket PC; so scanner technology is also easy. Might not work in industrial applications since it requires clean hands.
Fingerprint identification involves comparing the pattern of ridges and furrows on the fingertips, as well as the minutiae points (ridge characteristics that occur when a ridge splits into two, or ends) of a specimen print with a database of prints on file.
Hand geometry biometrics
Hand geometry readers work in harsh environments, do not require clean conditions, and forms a very small dataset. It is not regarded as an intrusive kind of test. It is often the authentication method of choice in industrial environments.
Retina scan
There is no known way to replicate a retina. As far as anyone knows, the pattern of the blood vessels at the back of the eye is unique and stays the same for a lifetime. However, it requires about 15 seconds of careful concentration to take a good scan. Retina scan remains a standard in military and government installations.
Iris scan
Like a retina scan, an iris scan also provides unique biometric data that is very difficult to duplicate and remains the same for a lifetime. The scan is similarly difficult to make (may be difficult for children or the infirm). However, there are ways of encoding the iris scan biometric data in a way that it can be carried around securely in a "barcode" format. (See the SF in the News article Biometric Identification Finally Gets Started for some detailed information about how to perform an iris scan.)
A signature is another example of biometric data that is easy to gather and is not physically intrusive. Digitized signatures are sometimes used, but usually have insufficient resolution to ensure authentication.
Voice analysis
Like face recognition, voice biometrics provide a way to authenticate identity without the subject's knowledge. It is easier to fake (using a tape recording); it is not possible to fool an analyst by imitating another person's voice.
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Security systems using biometrics

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Authentication plays a very critical role in security-related applications like e-commerce. There are a number of methods and techniques for accomplishing this key process. In this regard, biometrics is gaining increasing attention these days. Security systems, having realized the value of biometrics, use biometrics for two basic purposes: to verify or identify users. There are a number of biometrics and different applications need different biometrics.
As more and more valuable information is made accessible to employees via LAN and WAN, the risks associated with unauthorized access to sensitive data grow larger. Protecting your network with passwords is problematic, as passwords are easily compromised, lost, or inappropriately shared. Whether driven by security, convenience, or cost-reduction, biometrics are proving to be an effective solution for IT/Network Security. Major challenges in deploying biometrics in this environment include accuracy and performance, integrating biometric match decisions with existing systems, interoperability across proprietary technologies, and secure storage and transmission of biometric data.
Biometric technologies are available today that can be used in security systems to help protect assets. Biometric technologies vary in complexity, capabilities, and performance and can be used to verify or establish a person’s identity. Leading biometric technologies include facial recognition, fingerprint recognition, hand geometry, iris recognition, retina recognition, signature recognition, and speaker recognition. Biometric technologies have been used in federal applications such as access control, criminal identification, and border security.
However, it is important to bear in mind that effective security cannot be achieved by relying on technology alone. Technology and people must work together as part of an overall security process. Weaknesses in any of these areas diminish the effectiveness of the security process. The security process needs to account for limitations in biometric technology. For example, some people cannot enroll in a biometrics system. Similarly, errors sometimes occur during matching operations. Procedures need to be developed to handle these situations. Exception processing that is not as good as biometric-based primary processing could also be exploited as a security hole.


Biometrics refers to methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Biometric is the most secure and convenient authentication tool. It cannot be borrowed, stolen, or forgotten and forging one is practically impossible. In information technology, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.
Biometric technology is fast gaining popularity as means of security measures to reduce cases of fraud and theft due to its use of physical characteristics and traits for the identification of individuals. Biometrics has long been one of the solutions touted by security vendors to meet multi-factor authentication objectives. However, user acceptance and cost issues often prevent organizations from adopting biometrics as a solution. This isn’t to say that other multi-factor solutions are any less cost prohibitive. The capital expenditure and on-going maintenance costs of token-based systems are often higher than those for biometrics.
Biometrics can theoretically be very effective personal identifiers because the characteristics they measure are thought to be distinct to each person. Unlike conventional identification methods that use something you have, such as an identification card to gain access to a building, or something you know, such as a password to log on to a computer system, these characteristics are integral to something you are. Because they are tightly bound to an individual, they are more reliable, cannot be forgotten, and are less easily lost, stolen, or guessed.
Biometrics measure individual's unique physical or behavioral characteristics to recognize or authenticate their identity. Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes:
• Physiological are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, but are not limited to fingerprint, face recognition, DNA, hand and palm geometry, iris, which has largely replaced retina, and odor/scent.
• Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. Examples include, but are not limited to typing rhythm, gait, and voice. Some researchers have coined the term behaviometrics for this class of biometrics.
Strictly speaking, voice is also a physiological trait because every person has a different pitch, but voice recognition is mainly based on the study of the way a person speaks, commonly classified as behavioral. Of this class of biometrics, technologies for signature and voice are the most developed.
It is possible to understand if a human characteristic can be used for biometrics in terms of the following parameters:
• Universality - each person should have the characteristic.
• Uniqueness - is how well the biometric separates individually from another.
• Permanence - measures how well a biometric resists aging.
• Collectability - ease of acquisition for measurement.
• Performance - accuracy, speed, and robustness of technology used.
• Acceptability - degree of approval of a technology.
• Circumvention - ease of use of a substitute.


A biometric system can provide the following two functions:
• Verification -- Authenticates its users in conjunction with a smart card, username or ID number. The biometric template captured is compared with that stored against the registered user either on a smart card or database for verification.
• Identification -- Authenticates its users from the biometric characteristic alone without the use of smart cards, usernames or ID numbers. The biometric template is compared to all records within the database and a closest match score is returned. The closest match within the allowed threshold is deemed the individual and authenticated.
The main operations a system can perform are enrollment and test. During the enrollment, biometric information from an individual is stored. During the test, biometric information is detected and compared with the stored information. Note that it is crucial that storage and retrieval of such systems themselves be secure if the biometric system is to be robust. The first block (sensor) is the interface between the real world and our system; it has to acquire all the necessary data. Most of the times it is an image acquisition system, but it can change according to the characteristics desired. The second block performs all the necessary pre-processing: it has to remove artifacts from the sensor, to enhance the input (e.g. removing background noise), to use some kind of normalization, etc. In the third block features needed are extracted. This step is an important step as the correct features need to be extracted and the optimal way. A vector of numbers or an image with particular properties is used to create a template. A template is a synthesis of all the characteristics extracted from the source, in the optimal size to allow for adequate identifiability.
If enrollment is being performed the template is simply stored somewhere (on a card or within a database or both). If a matching phase is being performed, the obtained template is passed to a matcher that compares it with other existing templates, estimating the distance between them using any algorithm (e.g. Hamming distance). The matching program will analyze the template with the input. This will then be output for any specified use or purpose (e.g. entrance in a restricted area).
In verification systems, the step after enrollment is to verify that a person is who he or she claims to be (i.e., the person who enrolled). After the individual provides whatever identifier he or she enrolled with, the biometric is presented, which the biometric system captures, generating a trial template that is based on the vendor’s algorithm. The system then compares the trial biometric template with this person’s reference template, which was stored in the system during enrollment, to determine whether the individual’s trial and stored templates match. Verification is often referred to as 1:1 (one-to-one) matching. Verification systems can contain databases ranging from dozens to millions of enrolled templates but are always predicated on matching an individual’s presented biometric against his or her reference template.
In identification systems, the step after enrollment is to identify who the person is. Unlike verification systems, no identifier need be provided. To find a match, instead of locating and comparing the person’s reference template against his or her presented biometric, the trial template is compared against the stored reference templates of all individuals enrolled in the system. Identification systems are referred to as 1:N (one-to-N, or one-to-many) matching because an individual’s biometric is compared against multiple biometric templates in the system’s database.


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