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CLOUD COMPUTING
#16
PRESENTATION BY
KHUSHBOO


.ppt   29896059-PPT-on-Cloud-Computing (1).ppt (Size: 880 KB / Downloads: 132)
CLOUD COMPUTING
DEFINITION:
INTRODUCTION

 The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to 1960, when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility"; indeed it shares characteristics with service bureaus that date back to the 1960s.
 The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies, who until the 1990s primarily offered dedicated point-to-point data circuits, began offering “VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN)” services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost.
 The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider from that of the user. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure.
 Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using.
USES
 Helps to use applications without installations.
 Access the personal files at any computer with internet access.
 This technology allows much more efficient computation by centralizing storage, memory, processing and band width.
SURVEY
 Based on a study conducted in June 2009 by version one, 41% of IT senior professionals doesn’t have sound knowledge on cloud computing.
 In September 2009, Aberdeen Group found that 18% reduction in there IT budget and a 16% reduction in data center power costs.
LAYERS
APPLICATIONS

 Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver ‘software’ as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support.
PLATFORM
 Cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers.
INFRASTRUCTURE
SERVER

 The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services, including multi-core processors, cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings
DEPLOYMENT MODELS
HYBRID CLOUD & PRIVATE CLOUD
CRITICISM

 Richard Stallman, founder of the Free Software Foundation and creator of the computer operating system GNU, said that cloud computing was simply a trap aimed at forcing more people to buy into locked, proprietary systems that would cost them more and more over time. "It's stupidity. It's worse than stupidity: it's a marketing hype campaign," he told The Guardian. "Somebody is saying this is inevitable – and whenever you hear somebody saying that, it's very likely to be a set of businesses campaigning to make it true." "The interesting thing about cloud computing is that we've redefined cloud computing to include everything that we already do," he said.
 The main drawback behind the concept of Cloud Computing is we can’t completely rely on third party when we are transmitting sensitive data.
ISSUES
LEGAL

 In March 2007, Dell applied to trademark the term "cloud computing" (U.S. Trademark 77,139,082) in the United States. The "Notice of Allowance" the company received in July 2008 was cancelled in August, resulting in a formal rejection of the trademark application less than a week later.
 Since 2007, the number of trademark filings covering cloud computing brands, goods and services has increased at an almost exponential rate. As companies sought to better position themselves for cloud computing branding and marketing efforts, “cloud computing trademark filings increased by 483% between 2008 and 2009.” In 2009, 116 cloud computing trademarks were filed, and trademark analysts predict that over “500 such marks could be filed during 2010.”
SECURITY
 The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue which may be delaying its adoption. Some argue that customer data is more secure when managed internally, while others argue that cloud providers have a strong incentive to maintain trust and as such employ a higher level of security.
CONCLUSION
 Cloud computing is a better way to run your business. Instead of running your apps yourself, they run on a shared data center. When you use any app that runs in the cloud, you just log in, customize it, and start using it. That’s the power of cloud computing.
 Finally, cloud apps don’t eat up your valuable IT resources, so your CFO will love it. This lets you focus on deploying more apps, new projects, and innovation
THE BOTTOM LINE
Cloud computing is a simple idea, but it can have a huge impact on your business.
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#17
Presented byBy,
P. Naveen Kumar


.pptx   Computer Science Seminar - Cloud Computing.pptx (Size: 3.94 MB / Downloads: 97)
What is Cloud Computing?
 Using or sharing the Computer Technology,
Hardware, and Software over the Internet.
In Brief
 Cloud Computing refers to both the applications delivered as services over the Internet and the hardware and systems software in the datacenters that provide those services.
Evolution
 The idea of cloud computing is evolved from parallel processing, distributed computing and grid computing. There is a bit similarity between them but they work differently.
Related Technologies
 Grid computing
 Utility Computing
Autonomic Computing
Cloud Computing defined…

 “A style of Computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet”
History
 The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to 1960s, when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility.
 The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies.
 Amazon played a key role and in 2007, Google, IBM, and a number of universities embarked and by mid-2008, Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services.
 Architecture
 General Mechanism
Working Principle
 Classification
 Public Cloud
 Publicly accessible, self-service model:
 Access via well-defined & published Web Services(i.e. SOAP or REST).
 Access via management portal.-per-use.
Free or pay.
 No ongoing contract or commitment.
Private Cloud
 Emulate Public Cloud on private / internal resources.
 Gives benefit of Clouds (elasticity, dynamic provisioning, multiplexing) while:
 Maintaining control of resources (security).
 Meeting Corporate/Regulatory req.(governance).
 Option to scale out to Public Cloud. Hybrid Cloud
 Combination of private/internal and external Cloud resources.
 “Cloudbursting” to handle “Flash Crowds”.
 Provision additional resources from Public Clouds on-demand.
 Release resource when no longer needed.
 Can outsource non-critical functions.
 Architectural Layers
Software as a service (SaaS)
 Software as a service features a complete application offered as a service on demand. A single instance of the software runs on the cloud and services multiple end users or client organizations.
Public Storage Clouds –
Storage as a Service

 Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)
 Amazon CloudFront
 Nirvanix Storage Delivery Network
 Mosso Cloud Files
 Microsoft Azure Storage Services
Platform as a service (PaaS)
 Platform as a service encapsulates a layer of software and provides it as a service that can be used to build higher‐level services. It involved, middleware, Integration, Messaging, Information, Connectivity setup.
Public App Clouds –
Platform as a Service

 Google AppEngine
 Microsoft Azure Services Platform
 Salesforce.com / Force.com
 Mosso Cloud Sites
 Heroku
Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
 Infrastructure as a service delivers basic storage and compute capabilities as standardized services over the network.
 Servers, switches, routers, and other systems are pooled and made available to handle workloads of high‐performance computing applications.
Public Compute Clouds –
Infrastructure as a Service

 AmazonEC2
 GoGrid
 SliceHost
 Mosso Cloud Servers
Working with Cloud Computing
 Key features
 Agility
 Cost
 Device
 Multi-tenancy
 Reliability
 Scalability
 Security
 Maintenance
 Metering
 Cloud Computing Market
 Key Characteristics
Virtualization
Technology

 Virtualization technology works to handle on how the image of the operating system, middleware, and application pro‐created and allocated to a physical machine or part of the server stack away.
 Key Characteristics
Service‐Oriented Architecture (SOA)
 A service‐oriented architecture is essentially a collection of services that communicate with each other.
 The SOA is software or system architecture that addressing componentization, reusability, extensibility, and flexibility.
Statistics of Recent Growth
 Research Issues
 Interoperability
 Portability
 Reliability & Monitoring
 Data Security and Jurisdiction
 Innovative Cloud Pricing Models
 Innovative Service Models
 Pros and Cons
Conclusion & Future Scope
 Thus Cloud Computing provide a super – computing power. This Cloud of Computers extends beyond a single company or enterprise.
 In future, the security and reliability shall be improved by the introduction of certain globally accepted standards.
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#18
Presented by:
RINI ANN VARGHESE


.ppt   CLOUD COMPUTING_EDIT_97-03.ppt (Size: 4.43 MB / Downloads: 126)
OVERVIEW
Have a look at what experts say…
A paradigm shift in which computing is moved from personal computers to a ‘cloud’ of computers
Simply a metaphor for the internet
It’s about new IT infrastructure, new business and programming models
Comes into play when affordability and huge infrastructure become a big headache for smaller enterprises
CLOUD COMPUTING
More About Cloud Computing…
A paradigm
Information is permanently stored in servers on the internet
Cached temporarily on clients like desktops, hand-helds, sensors etc.
A style of computing
IT services and resources are provided as a service over the internet
The concept generally incorporates the following:
Software as a Service (SaaS)
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
Why Cloud Computing…?
IT Efficiency-
Minimize Costs
Business Agility- Maximize Return
History of Cloud Computing
The underlying concept dates back to 1960’s
“Computation may someday be organized as a public utility ” -John McCarthy
The term ‘Cloud’ into commercial use in the early 1990’s
General Magic launched a short-lived Cloud Computing product in 1995
Salesforce.com was established in 1999 which provided the concept of ‘On Demand’ & Saas
History of CC (Contd…)
In the early 2000’s Microsoft extended this concepts
IBM detailed these concept in 2001
Amazon modernized their datacenters in 2005
In 2007 Google, IBM etc embarked on a large scale CC research project
By mid 2008 CC gained popularity in the mainstream press
Characteristics of CC
Agility
Cost
Device and Location Independence
Multi- Tenancy
Reliability and Self Healing
Scalability
Security
Sustainability
Components of CC
Clients
Services
Application
Platform
Storage
Infrastructure
CC Architecture
Fig: 1 How users connect to the cloud…
CC Architecture (Contd…)
User Interaction Interface:
How users of cloud interface with the cloud
Services catalogue:
Services a user can request
System management:
Manages the resources available
CC Architecture (Contd…)
Provisioning tool: Carves out the systems from the cloud to deliver on the requested service
Monitoring and metering:
Tracks the usage of the cloud (optional)
Servers:
Virtual or physical servers managed by System management
CC Infrastructure Models
Why CC is the Wave of the Future?
Software as a Subscription
Reduced Software Maintenance
Increased Reliability
Increased Scalability
Cost Reduction
Environment Friendly
Matches Current Computing Trends
Portability/ Accessibility
Efficient Use of Computer Resources
Versionless Software
CRITICISM
&
DISADVANTAGES

CC does not allow users to physically possess the storage of their data
CC limits the freedom of users
CC is dependent on internet connection
CC endangers liberties
It would be a challenge for hosting access restricted sites
Some platforms are still in beta
FUTURE OF CLOUD COMPUTING
Trend of large vendors entering CC will accelerate
All major IDEs will provide cloud deployment options
A next- generation of “Middleware for the cloud” will rise in dominance over traditional J2EE Application Servers
System administration & Configuration and Network Management will become a field bursting with innovation
CONCLUSION
This was what the pioneers in the field concluded…
Cloud Computing is the next big wave in computing
A powerful new abstraction for large scale data processing systems
A new emerging architecture which can expand the Internet to become the computing platform of the future
Reply
#19

.docx   Cloud computing.DOCX (Size: 19.72 KB / Downloads: 72)
Cloud computing
History has a funny way of repeating itself, or so they say. But it may come as some surprise to find this old cliché applies just as much to the history of computers as to wars, revolutions, and kings and queens. For the last three decades, one trend in computing has been loud and clear: big, centralized, mainframe systems have been "out"; personalized, power-to-the-people, do-it-yourself PCs have been "in." Before personal computers took off in the early 1980s, if your company needed sales or payroll figures calculating in a hurry, you'd most likely have bought in specialized "data-processing" services from another company, with its own expensive computer systems, that specialized in number crunching; these days, you can do the job just as easily on your desktop with off-the-shelf software. Or can you? In a striking throwback to the 1970s, many companies are finding, once again, that buying in computer services makes more business sense than do-it-yourself. This new trend is called cloud computing and, not surprisingly, it's linked to the Internet's inexorable rise. What is cloud computing? How does it work? Let's take a closer look!
Photo: Cloud computing: the hardware, software, and applications you're using may be anywhere up in the "cloud." As long as it all does what you want, you don't need to worry where it is or how it works. Composite photo by Explainthatstuff.com based on a picture of an IBM Blue Gene/P supercomputer, by courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory, published under a Creative Commons Licence, and a cloud photo by Brian Ferguson courtesy of US Air Force.
What is cloud computing?
Cloud computing means that instead of all the computer hardware and software you're using sitting on your desktop, or somewhere inside your company's network, it's provided for you as a service by another company and accessed over the Internet, usually in a completely seamless way. Exactly where the hardware and software is located and how it all works doesn't matter to you, the user—it's just somewhere up in the nebulous "cloud" that the Internet represents.
Cloud computing is a buzzword that means different things to different people. For some, it's just another way of describing IT (information technology) "outsourcing"; others use it to mean any computing service provided over the Internet or a similar network; and some define it as any bought-in computer service you use that sits outside your firewall. However we define cloud computing, there's no doubt it makes most sense when we stop talking about abstract definitions and look at some simple, real examples—so let's do just that.
Simple examples of cloud computing
Most of us use cloud computing all day long without realizing it. When you sit at your PC and type a query into Google, the computer on your desk isn't playing much part in finding the answers you need: it's no more than a messenger. The words you type are swiftly shuttled over the Net to one of Google's hundreds of thousands of clustered PCs, which dig out your results and send them promptly back to you. When you do a Google search, the real work in finding your answers might be done by a computer sitting in California, Dublin, Tokyo, or Beijing; you don't know—and most likely you don't care!
The same applies to Web-based email. Once upon a time, email was something you could only send and receive using a program running on your PC (sometimes called a mail client). But then Web-based services such as Hotmail came along and carried email off into the cloud. Now we're all used to the idea that emails can be stored and processed through a server in some remote part of the world, easily accessible from a Web browser, wherever we happen to be. Pushing email off into the cloud makes it supremely convenient for busy people, constantly on the move.
Preparing documents over the Net is a newer example of cloud computing. Simply log on to a web-based service such as Google Documents and you can create a document, spreadsheet, presentation, or whatever you like using Web-based software. Instead of typing your words into a program like Microsoft Word or OpenOffice, running on your computer, you're using similar software running on a PC at one of Google's world-wide data centers. Like an email drafted on Hotmail, the document you produce is stored remotely, on a Web server, so you can access it from any Internet-connected computer, anywhere in the world, any time you like. Using a Web-based service like this means you're "contracting out" or "outsourcing" some of your computing needs to a company such as Google: they pay the cost of developing the software and keeping it up-to-date and they earn back the money to do this through advertising and other paid-for services.
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#20
send sum IEEE 2011 papers
i didn't ve acc Rolleyes
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#21
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#22
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#24

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#25
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#26
CLOUD COMPUTING


.pdf   cloudcomputing.pdf (Size: 882.94 KB / Downloads: 170)

Overview of cloud computing?
Cloud computing*
Computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet/Intranet”.
Five characteristics of cloud computing
1.On-demand self-service
2.Ubiquitous network access
3.Location independent resource pooling
4.Rapid elasticity


Market potential –Analyst speak
•By 2011 the volume of cloud computing market opportunity would amount to $160bn -$95bn in business applications and $65bn in online advertising
•By 2012, 80% of Fortune 1000 enterprises will be paying for some cloud computing services
•By 2012, 30% of Fortune 1000 enterprises will be paying for some cloud infrastructure services


Infosys Research in Cloud ComputingInfrastructure Optimization

•Enterprise Private Cloud Solution
•On-Demand Test Cloud Solution
•Cloud Management and Automated SLA Management SolutionsScalable cloud platforms
•Low cost storage solutions
•Low cost processing solutions
•Business cloud platform solutionsCloud Application Development Accelerators
•Application assessment and migration
•Multi-Tenant SaaSApplication framework
•Cloud based social commerce platform based on KV Stores and H-Store


Trends from the early adoption of cloud computing
•Private clouds find favor among data-center folks, PaaSwith the developer community and SaaS/PraaSwith the business community
•SMEs are the early adopters IaaS
–IaaSprovides an easy and low-cost way to test a start-up’s ideas
•ISVs are looking for mature PaaSoptions, but are finding it way short of the tools/utilities that they are used to from the on-premise world.
•Enterprises are testing cloudy-waters by deploying B2C standalone applications
•SaaS is the most easily adopted category
–Salesforce.com, Office
•Virtualized Desktop Infrastructure
•Security conscious early adopters are setting-up private clouds
–Consolidation Abstraction Automation Utility Market
•Strong resistance to re-engineering applications for clouds
–Applications that choke at database level?
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#27
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#28
Cloud Computing


.pptx   Cloud-Computing-Ghalib seminar.pptx (Size: 448.25 KB / Downloads: 35)

Introduction

Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically the Internet).


What is cloud computing

provides computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. Parallels to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service.


Cloud Architecture


Cloud architecture are based on creation of large datacenter by defining a n abstraction between the platform and the operational system. Basically systems which use for deploying an application or information storing are used to call “Management Fabric Automated” system.
This also an important part of cloud architecture. At the time of the deployment it provisions the hardware, deploy the operating system image on server and deploy services on server.


Characteristics


Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics:
Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources.
Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software.
Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure .
Device and location independence .
Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users hus allowing for:


Software as a Service (SaaS)


This is the Top most layer of the cloud computing stack - directly consumed by end user – i.e. SaaS (Software as a Service).
On-Premise applications are quite expensive, affordable only to big enterprises. Why?
Cause On-Premise applications had a very high upfront CapEx (Capital Expenditure) ; which results in a high TCO (Total Cost of Ownership). On-Premise apps also require a higher number of skilled developers to maintain the application.





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#29
CLOUD COMPUTING


.docx   Cloud computing.docx (Size: 93.2 KB / Downloads: 36)


Cloud computing is a technology that uses the internet and central remote servers to maintain data and applications. Cloud computing allows consumers and businesses to use applications without installation and access their personal files at any computer with internet access. We can also say that it is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically the Internet). This technology allows for much more inefficient computing by centralizing storage, memory, processing and bandwidth
Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service.
Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption, and delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols, and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources. It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own computers.
Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet, which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps, while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. In some cases, legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology, while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data center location; in other cases, entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX.
At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services. This type of data center environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.
Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data-centers and appearing as a single point of access for consumers' computing needs. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs), but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies.
The tremendous impact of cloud computing on business has prompted the federal United States government to look to the cloud as a means to reorganize their IT infrastructure and decrease their spending budgets. With the advent of the top government official mandating cloud adoption, many agencies already have at least one or more cloud systems online.

A simple example of cloud computing is Yahoo email, Gmail, or Hotmail etc. You don’t need software or a server to use them. All a consumer would need is just an internet connection and you can start sending emails. The server and email management software is all on the cloud (internet) and is totally managed by the cloud service provider Yahoo, Google etc. The consumer gets to use the software alone and enjoy the benefits. The analogy is, 'If you need milk, would you buy a cow?' All the users or consumers need is to get the benefits of using the software or hardware of the computer like sending emails etc. Just to get this benefit (milk) why should a consumer buy a (cow) software /hardware?
Cloud computing is broken down into three segments: "application" "storage" and "connectivity." Each segment serves a different purpose and offers different products for businesses and individuals around the world. In June 2011, a study conducted by Version One found that 91% of senior IT professionals actually don't know what cloud computing is and two-thirds of senior finance professionals are clear by the concept, [1] highlighting the young nature of the technology. In Sept 2011, an Aberdeen Group study found that disciplined companies achieved on average a 68% increase in their IT expense because cloud computing and only a 10% reduction in data center power costs.
The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network, and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents.
Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualization, service-oriented architecture, autonomic, and utility computing. Details are abstracted from end-users, who no longer have need for expertise in, or control over, the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.
The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s, when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision, provided as a utility, online, illusion of infinite supply), the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public, private, government, and community forms, were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book, The Challenge of the Computer Utility. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers.
The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies, who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits, began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. By switching traffic to balance utilization as they saw fit, they were able to utilize their overall network bandwidth more effectively. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure.
After the dot-com bubble, Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers, which, like most computer networks, were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time, just to leave room for occasional spikes. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small, fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily, Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers, and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006.
In early 2008, Eucalyptus became the first open-source, AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. In early 2008, Open Nebula, enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project, became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds, and for the federation of clouds. In the same year, efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures, in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project, resulting to a real-time cloud environment. By mid-2008, Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services, those who use IT services and those who sell them" and observed that "[o]organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing ... will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas."
Characteristics

Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics:
Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control, as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example)
Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources.
Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs.
Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure.[15] This is purported to lower barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).[16]
Device and location independence [17] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile phone). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere.[16]
Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for:
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CLOUD COMPUTING




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Abstract

Cloud computing technology has been a new buzzword in the IT industry and expecting a new horizon for coming world. It is a style of computing which is having dynamically scalable virtualized resources provided as a service over the Internet. It reduces the time required to procure heavy resources and boot new server instances in minutes, allowing one to quickly scale capacity, both up and down, as ones requirement changes. Nevertheless the technology is hot in the market and is ready to cater to the small and medium business segment. As per one of the estimates from Gartner, by year 2012, 20% of enterprise market e-mail seats will be delivered via Cloud. As per another estimate from Gartner, Software as a Service is forecast to have a compound annual growth rate of 17% through 2011 for CRM, ERP and SCM markets in SMB segment. While the enterprises are exploring the possibilities of adopting this technology, it is imperative for these enterprises to critically evaluate the feasibility of this technology for their specific businesses.

The typical characteristic of this technology:

Cloud computing customers do not generally own the physical infrastructure serving as host to the software platform in question. Instead, they avoid capital expenditure by renting usage from a third-party provider. The entire onus lies on the service provider who owns the huge scalable and variable host of infrastructure, software and bundle of other services. Cloud computing consumers consume resources as a service and pay only for resources that they use. Many cloud-computing offerings employ the utility computing model, which is analogous to how traditional utility services (such as electricity) are consumed, while others bill on a subscription basis. Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power among multiple tenants can improve utilization rates, as servers are not unnecessarily left idle (which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development).

This article provides brief details about the cloud computing with an overview of key features to give a glimpse about the new focused technology.
Look up on few facts:

What is Cloud Computing?

Cloud computing is emerging at the convergence of three major trends — service orientation, virtualization and standardization of computing through the Internet. Cloud computing enables users and developers to utilize services without knowledge of, expertise with, nor control over the technology infrastructure that supports them. The concept generally incorporates combinations of the following:

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) Platform as a service (PaaS) Software as a service (SaaS)

Users avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software, and services when they pay a provider only for what they use. Consumption is billed on a utility (e.g. resources consumed, like electricity) or subscription (e.g. time based, like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost.

Cloud Vendors

There are many companies who are into the market offering various ranges of services on Cloud Computing. The major players are Vmware, Sun Microsystems, Rackspace US, IBM, Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and Yahoo. Cloud services are also being adopted by individual users through large enterprises including Vmware, General Electric, and Procter & Gamble. The vendor hosts and manages the infrastructure required with the respective technology.

Cloud as a Service to Customer

The cloud computing that are evolving as a service in the cloud are being provided by big enterprises with a heavy investment with resource and technology which are accessed by others via the internet. The resources are accessed in this manner as a service – often on a subscription basis. The users of the services being offered often have very little knowledge of the technology being used. The users also have no control over the infrastructure that supports the technology they are using.

There are six different forms that have been consolidated so far to understand how the services are being provided to the customers:
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