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cloud computing Project Idea

hai ...

i am doing final MCA, i need the project titles on cloud computing.. pls convey

please read for more about cloud computing technical details

.pdf   Cloud Computing.pdf (Size: 439.93 KB / Downloads: 2,116)

Presented By

Computers have become an indispensable part of life. We need computers everywhere, be it for work, research or in any such field. As the use of computers in our day-to-day life increases, the computing resources that we need also go up. For companies like Google and Microsoft, harnessing the resources as and when they need it is not a problem. But when it comes to smaller enterprises, affordability becomes a huge factor. With the huge infrastructure come problems like machines failure, hard drive crashes, software bugs, etc. This might be a big headache for such a community. Cloud Computing offers a solution to this situation. Cloud computing is a paradigm shift in which computing is moved away from personal computers and even the individual enterprise application server to a ‘cloud’ of computers. A cloud is a virtualized server pool which can provide the different computing resources of their clients. Users of this system need only be concerned with the computing service being asked for. The underlying details of how it is achieved are hidden from the user. The data and the services provided reside in massively scalable data centers and can be ubiquitously accessed from any connected device all over the world. Cloud computing is the style of computing where massively scaled IT related capabilities are provided as a service across the internet to multiple external customers and are billed by consumption. Many cloud computing providers have popped up and there is a considerable growth in the usage of this service. Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, IBM and Amazon have started providing cloud computing services. Amazon is the pioneer in this field. Smaller companies like SmugMug, which is an online photo hosting site, has used cloud services for the storing all the data and doing some of its services. Cloud Computing is finding use in various areas like web hosting, parallel batch processing, graphics rendering, financial modeling, web crawling, genomics analysis, etc

Usman Sait A.K.

.doc   cloudcomputingdocumentationreport.doc (Size: 518 KB / Downloads: 748)


Imagine yourself in the world where the users of the computer of today’s internet world don’t have to run, install or store their application or data on their own computers, imagine the world where every piece of your information or data would reside on the Cloud (Internet).
As a metaphor for the Internet, "the cloud" is a familiar cliché, but when combined with "computing", the meaning gets bigger and fuzzier. Some analysts and vendors define cloud computing narrowly as an updated version of utility computing: basically virtual servers available over the Internet. Others go very broad, arguing anything you consume outside the firewall is "in the cloud", including conventional outsourcing.
Cloud computing comes into focus only when you think about what we always need: a way to increase capacity or add capabilities on the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel, or licensing new software. Cloud computing encompasses any subscription-based or pay-per-use service that, in real time over the Internet, extends ICT's existing capabilities.
Cloud computing is at an early stage, with a motley crew of providers large and small delivering a slew of cloud-based services, from full-blown applications to storage services to spam filtering. Yes, utility-style infrastructure providers are part of the mix, but so are SaaS (software as a service) providers such as Today, for the most part, IT must plug into cloud-based services individually, but cloud computing aggregators and integrators are already emerging.

Cloud computing- The Concept
Cloud computing is Internet ("cloud") based development and use of computer technology ("computing"). It is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.
The concept incorporates infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and software as a service (SaaS) as well as Web 2.0 and other recent technology trends which have the common theme of reliance on the Internet for satisfying the computing needs of the users. Examples of SaaS vendors include and Google Apps which provide common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the servers.
The term cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on how the Internet is depicted in computer network diagrams, and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals.

.ppt   Overview of Fault tolerance in cloud computing.ppt (Size: 115.5 KB / Downloads: 846)

An Overview of ABFT in cloud computing

Shiv Kumar Gupta
Department of Computer Science A.P.S.U., Rewa

What is cloud computing?

Cloud computing gets as a metaphor for the internet.
The internet is represented in network diagram as a cloud.
A cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system.
It is a collection of inter-connected and virtualized computers

Meaning of dependability

Dependability is the concept of reliability ,safety or security.
It is tool of attributes, means, impairments
Attributes have availability, reliability, safety, confidentiality, integrity, and Maintainability.
Means have fault prevention, fault tolerance, fault removal, fault forecasting
Impairments have faults, errors, failures
Cloud computing is location-independent computing, whereby shared servers provide resources, software, and data to computers and other devices on demand, as with the electricity grid. Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualization, service-oriented architecture and utility computing. Details are abstracted from consumers, who no longer have need for expertise in, or control over, the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.[1]
Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption, and delivery model for IT services based on the Internet, and it typically involves over-the-Internet provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources.[2][3] It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet.[4] This frequently takes the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if it were a program installed locally on their own computer.[5]
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides a somewhat more objective and specific definition here.[6] The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network,[7] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents.[8] Typical cloud computing providers deliver common business applications online that are accessed from another Web service or software like a Web browser, while the software and data are stored on servers.
Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through common centers and built on servers. Clouds often appear as single points of access for consumers' computing needs. Commercial offerings are generally expected to meet quality of service (QoS) requirements of customers, and typically include service level agreements (SLAs).[9]

Cloud computing derives characteristics from, but should not be confused with:
1. Autonomic computing — "computer systems capable of self-management"[10]
2. Client–server model – client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients)[11]
3. Grid computing — "a form of distributed computing and parallel computing, whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks"
4. Mainframe computer — powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data-processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and financial transaction processing.[12]
5. Utility computing — the "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity";[13]
6. Peer-to-peer – distributed architecture without the need for central coordination, with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model)
7. Service-oriented computing – Cloud computing provides services related to computing while, in a reciprocal manner, service-oriented computing consists of the computing techniques that operate on software-as-a-service.[14]
The fundamental concept of cloud computing is that the computing is "in the cloud" i.e. the processing (and the related data) is not in a specified, known or static place(s). This is in opposition to where the processing takes place in one or more specific servers that are known. All the other concepts mentioned are supplementary or complementary to this concept.
Generally, cloud computing customers do not own the physical infrastructure, instead avoiding capital expenditure by renting usage from a third-party provider. They consume resources as a service and pay only for resources that they use. Many cloud-computing offerings employ the utility computing model, which is analogous to how traditional utility services (such as electricity) are consumed, whereas others bill on a subscription basis. Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power among multiple tenants can improve utilization rates, as servers are not unnecessarily left idle, which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development. A side-effect of this approach is that overall computer usage rises dramatically, as customers do not have to engineer for peak load limits.[15] In addition, "increased high-speed bandwidth" makes it possible to receive the same. The cloud is becoming increasingly associated with small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as in many cases they cannot justify or afford the large capital expenditure of traditional IT. SMEs also typically have less existing infrastructure, less bureaucracy, more flexibility, and smaller capital budgets for purchasing in-house technology. Similarly, SMEs in emerging markets are typically unburdened by established legacy infrastructures, thus reducing the complexity of deploying cloud solutions.[citation needed]
Cloud computing users avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software, and services when they pay a provider only for what they use. Consumption is usually billed on a utility (resources consumed, like electricity) or subscription (time-based, like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost. Other benefits of this approach are low barriers to entry, shared infrastructure and costs, low management overhead, and immediate access to a broad range of applications. In general, users can terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty), and the services are often covered by service level agreements (SLAs) with financial penalties.[16][17]
According to Nicholas Carr, the strategic importance of information technology is diminishing as it becomes standardized and less expensive. He argues that the cloud computing paradigm shift is similar to the displacement of private factory power generators by utility power plants early in the 20th century.[18]
Although companies might be able to save on upfront capital expenditures, they might not save much and might actually pay more for operating expenses. In situations where the capital expense would be relatively small, or where the organization has more flexibility in their capital budget than their operating budget, the cloud model might not make great economic sense. Other factors having an impact on the scale of potential cost savings include the efficiency of a company's data center as compared to the cloud vendor's, the company's existing operating costs, the level of adoption of cloud computing, and the type of functionality being hosted in the cloud.[19][20]
Among the items that some cloud hosts charge for are instances (often with extra charges for high-memory or high-CPU instances), data transfer in and out, storage (measured by the GB-month), I/O requests, PUT requests and GET requests, IP addresses, and load balancing. In some cases, users can bid on instances, with pricing dependent on demand for available instances.[21]
Cloud computing is a paradigm shift in which computing is moved away from personal computers and even the individual enterprise application server to a ‘cloud’ of computers. This is really amazing and outstanding.

.doc   the full.. document on green cloud.doc (Size: 309 KB / Downloads: 284)
Cloud computing is offering utility oriented IT services to users world wide. It enables hosting of applications from consumer, scientific and business domains. However data centers hosting cloud computing applications consume huge amounts of energy, contributing to high operational costs and carbon footprints to the environment. With energy shortages and global climate change leading our concerns these days, the power consumption of data centers has become a key issue. Therefore, we need green cloud computing solutions that can not only save energy, but also reduce operational costs. The vision for energy efficient management of cloud computing environments is presented here. A green scheduling algorithm which works by powering down servers when they are not in use is also presented.
In 1969, Leonard Klein rock, one of the chief scientists of the original Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) which seeded the Internet, said: “As of now, computer networks are still in their infancy, but as they grow up and become sophisticated, we will probably see the spread of „computer utilities‟ which, like present electric and telephone utilities, will service individual homes and offices across the country.” This vision of computing utilities based on a service provisioning model anticipated the massive transformation of the entire computing industry in the 21st century whereby computing services will be readily available on demand, like other utility services available in today’s society. Similarly, users (consumers) need to pay providers only when they access the computing services. In addition, consumers no longer need to invest heavily or encounter difficulties in building and maintaining complex IT infrastructure.
In such a model, users access services based on their requirements without regard to where the services are hosted. This model has been referred to as utility computing, or recently as Cloud computing. The latter term denotes the infrastructure as a “Cloud” from which businesses and users can access applications as services from anywhere in the world on demand. Hence, Cloud computing can be classified as a new paradigm for the dynamic provisioning of computing services supported by state-of-the-art data centers that usually employ Virtual Machine (VM) technologies for consolidation and environment isolation purposes . Many computing service providers including Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, and IBM are rapidly deploying data centers in various locations around the world to deliver Cloud computing services.
Cloud computing delivers infrastructure, platform, and software (applications) as services, which are made available to consumers as subscription-based services under the pay-as-you-go model. In industry these services are referred to as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS) respectively. A recent Berkeley report stated “Cloud Computing, the long-held dream of computing as a utility, has the potential to transform a large part of the IT industry, making software even more attractive as a service”.
Clouds aim to drive the design of the next generation data centers by architecting them as networks of virtual services (hardware, database, user-interface, application logic) so that users can access and deploy applications from anywhere in the world on demand at competitive costs depending on their QoS (Quality of Service) requirements .
Need of Cloud Computing
The need of cloud computing can be explained with the help of an example. The following graph shows the number of users who log on to the Australian web page.
The spikes correspond to the month of January during which the tournament is going on. The site remains almost dormant during the rest of the year. It would be wasteful to have servers which can cater to the maximum need, as they won’t be needed during the rest of the year. The concept of cloud computing comes to the rescue at this time. During the peak period, cloud providers such as Google, Yahoo, and Microsoft etc.can be approached to provide the necessary server capacity.
In this case, Infrastructure is provided as a service (IaaS) through cloud computing. Likewise, cloud providers can be approached for obtain software or platform as a service. Developers with innovative ideas for new Internet services no longer require large capital outlays in hardware to deploy their service or human expense to operate it. Cloud computing offers significant benefits to IT companies by freeing them from the low-level task of setting up basic hardware and software infrastructures and thus enabling focus on innovation and creating business value for their services.
Green Computing
Green computing is defined as the study and practice of designing , manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment." The goals of green computing are similar to green chemistry; reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote the recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste. Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.
There are several approaches to green computing, namely
• Product longetivity
• Algorithmic efficiency
• Resource allocation
• Virtualisation
• Power management etc.
Need of green computing in clouds
Modern data centers, operating under the Cloud computing model are hosting a variety of applications ranging from those that run for a few seconds (e.g. serving requests of web applications such as e-commerce and social networks portals with transient workloads) to those that run for longer periods of time (e.g. simulations or large data set processing) on shared hardware platforms. The need to manage multiple applications in a data center creates the challenge of on-demand resource provisioning and allocation in response to time-varying workloads. Normally, data center resources are statically allocated to applications, based on peak load characteristics, in order to maintain isolation and provide performance guarantees. Until recently, high performance has been the sole concern in data center deployments and this demand has been fulfilled without paying much attention to energy consumption. The average data center consumes as much energy as 25,000 households [20]. As energy costs are increasing while availability dwindles, there is a need to shift focus from optimizing data center resource management for pure performance to optimizing for energy efficiency while maintaining high service level performance. According to certain reports, the total estimated energy bill for data centers in 2010 is $11.5 billion and energy costs in a typical data center double every five years.
Data centers are not only expensive to maintain, but also unfriendly to the environment. Data centers now drive more in carbon emissions than both Argentina and the Netherlands. High energy costs and huge carbon footprints are incurred due to massive amounts of electricity needed to power and cool numerous servers hosted in these data centers. Cloud service providers need to adopt measures to ensure that their profit margin is not dramatically reduced due to high energy costs. For instance, Google, Microsoft, and Yahoo are building large data centers in barren desert land surrounding the Columbia River, USA to exploit cheap and reliable hydroelectric power. There is also increasing pressure from Governments worldwide to reduce carbon footprints, which have a significant impact on climate change. For example, the Japanese government has established the Japan Data Center Council to address the soaring energy consumption of data centers. Leading computing service providers have also recently formed a global consortium known as The Green Grid to promote energy efficiency for data centers and minimize their environmental impact.
Lowering the energy usage of data centers is a challenging and complex issue because computing applications and data are growing so quickly that increasingly larger servers and disks are needed to process them fast enough within the required time period. Green Cloud computing is envisioned to achieve not only efficient processing and utilization of computing infrastructure, but also minimize energy consumption. This is essential for ensuring that the future growth of Cloud computing is sustainable. Otherwise, Cloud computing with increasingly pervasive front-end client devices interacting with back-end data centers will cause an enormous escalation of energy usage. To address this problem, data center resources need to be managed in an energy-efficient manner to drive Green Cloud computing. In particular, Cloud resources need to be allocated not only to satisfy QoS requirements specified by users via Service Level Agreements (SLA), but also to reduce energy usage.
I think that is right place for asking to my question.I want to know what is difference between Saas companies and IT companies?Are they in competitor to each other?
Hi, im writing on a cloud computing project and need some materials. My topic is "cloud computing as an emerging technology and its impact on businesses". Can you be of help please?

to get information about the topic ensuring data storage security in cloud computing full report ,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

to get information about the topic Cloud Computing full report ,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

to get information about the topic cloud computing full report ,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

cloud computing

.doc   CLOUD COMPUTINg Seminar data.doc (Size: 1.06 MB / Downloads: 92)

The Greek myths tell of creatures plucked from the surface of the Earth and enshrined as constellations in the night sky. Something similar is happening today in the world of computing. Data and programs are being swept up from desktop PCs and corporate server rooms and installed in “the compute cloud”. In general, there is a shift in the geography of computation.
What is cloud computing exactly? As a beginning here is a definition
“An emerging computer paradigm where data and services reside in massively scalable data centers in the cloud and can be accessed from any connected devices over the internet”
Like other definitions of topics like these, an understanding of the term cloud computing requires an understanding of various other terms which are closely related to this. While there is a lack of precise scientific definitions for many of these terms, general definitions can be given.
Cloud computing is an emerging paradigm in the computer industry where the computing is moved to a cloud of computers. It has become one of the buzz words of the industry. The core concept of cloud computing is, quite simply, that the vast computing resources that we need will reside somewhere out there in the cloud of computers and we’ll connect to them and use them as and when needed.

A definition for cloud computing can be given as an emerging computer paradigm where data and services reside in massively scalable data centers in the cloud and can be accessed from any connected devices over the internet
Cloud computing is a way of providing various services on virtual machines allocated on top of a large physical machine pool which resides in the cloud. Cloud computing comes into focus only when we think about what IT has always wanted - away to increase capacity or add different capabilities to the current setting on the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel or licensing new software. Here ‘on the fly’ and ‘without investing or training’ becomes the keywords in the current situation. But cloud computing offers a better solution.

1. Self Healing
Any application or any service running in a cloud computing environment has the property of self healing. In case of failure of the application, there is always a hot backup of the application ready to take over without disruption. There are multiple copies of the same failure there is at least one copy of the application which can take over without even the slightest change in its running state.
2. Multi-tenancy
With cloud computing, any application supports multi-tenancy - that is multiple tenants at the same instant of time. The system allows several customers to share the infrastructure allotted to them without any of them being aware of the sharing. This is done by virtualizing the servers on the available machine pool and then allotting the servers to multiple users. This is done in such a way that the privacy of the users or the security of their data is not compromised.

What could we do with 1000 times more data and CPU power? One simple question. That’s all it took the interviewers to bewilder the confident job applicants at Google. This is a question of relevance because the amount of data that an application handles is increasing day by day and so is the CPU power that one can harness.
There are many answers to this question. With this much CPU power, we could scale our businesses to 1000 times more users. Right now we are gathering statistics about every user using an application. With such CPU power at hand, we could monitor every single user click and every user interaction such that we can gather all the statistics about the user. We could improve the recommendation systems of users. We could model better price plan choices. With this CPU power we could simulate the case where we have say 100,000 users in the system without any glitches.

Public cloud
Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense, whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained, self-service basis over the Internet, via web applications/web services, from an off-site third-party provider who shares resources and bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis.

Private cloud
Private cloud and internal cloud are neologisms that some vendors have recently used to describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks. These products claim

Cloud computing is a powerful new abstraction for large scale data processing systems which is scalable, reliable and available. In cloud computing, there are large self-managed server pools available which reduces the overhead and eliminates management headache. Cloud computing services can also grow and shrink according to need. Cloud computing is particularly valuable to small and medium businesses, where effective and affordable IT tools are critical to helping them become more productive without spending lots of money on in-house resources and technical equipment. Also it is a new emerging architecture needed to expand the Internet to become the computing platform of the future.

cloud computing Project Idea

.pdf   Cloud.pdf (Size: 2.45 MB / Downloads: 102)

What is Driving Cloud Computing

Easier for application vendors to reach new customers
• Lowest cost way of delivering and supporting applications
• Ability to use commodity server and storage hardware
• Ability to drive down data center operational cots
• In one word: economics

What are the Barriers to Cloud Computing?

#1 Service Level Agreements
• What if something goes wrong?
• What is the true cost of providing SLAs?
• #2 Business Models
• SaaS/PaaS models are challenging
• Much lower upfront revenue
• #3 Customer Lock-in
• Customers want open/standard APIs
• Need to continuously add value

The Private Enterprise Cloud

Harness the advantages of clouds for the enterprise
• Cost-effective datacenter infrastructure
• Server and storage resource pools
• High Availability and Reliability in Software
• Virtual application environment
• Separation of processing and storage
• On-demand Application Deployment
• Greatly increases server utilization
• Prioritization based on business requirements

Private Cloud Architecture Elements

• Server Virtualization
• Enable any app to run on any server anytime
• Highly Available Storage
• Network block and file servers
• Low latency, high-bandwidth network
• Enable application mobility in the cloud
• Pre-emptive application scheduler
• Implements business rules and priorities
• Low-cost industry standard servers
• Transcend hardware failures with software

Conclusions (cont)
• Cloud Computing is the fastest growing part of IT
• Tremendous benefits to customers of all sizes
• Cloud services are simpler to acquire and scale up or down
• Key opportunity for application and infrastructure vendors
• Public clouds work great for some but not all applications
• Private clouds offer many benefits for internal applications
• Public and private clouds can be used in combination

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