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cloud computing Project Idea
#16
cloud computing


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Introduction

According to Gartner’s Hype Cycle Special Report for 2009, “technologies at the ‘Peak of Inflated Expectations’ during 2009 include cloud computing, e-books… and Internet TV, while social software and microblogging sites…have tipped over the peak and will soon experience disillusionment among enterprise users”. Is cloud computing also heading for the trough of disillusionment?


Pros and Cons of Cloud Computing

The great advantage of cloud computing is “elasticity”: the ability to add capacity or applications almost at a moment’s notice. Companies buy exactly the amount of storage, computing power, security and other IT functions that they need from specialists in data-center computing. They get sophisticated data center services on demand, in only the amount they need and can pay for, at service levels set with the vendor, with capabilities that can be added or subtracted at will.


Virtualization and Private Clouds
Virtualization of computers or operating systems hides the physical characteristics of a computing platform from users; instead it shows another abstract computing platform. A hypervisor is a piece of virtualization software that allows multiple operating systems to run on a host computer concurrently. Virtualization providers include VMware, Microsoft, and Citrix Systems (see Table 1). Virtualization is an enabler of cloud computing.


Applicability
Not everyone agrees, but McKinsey has concluded1 as follows. “Clouds already make sense for many small and medium-size businesses, but technical, operational and financial hurdles will need to be overcome before clouds will be used extensively by large public and private enterprises. Rather than create unrealizable expectations for “internal clouds”, CIOs should focus now on the immediate benefits of virtualizing server storage, network operations, and other critical building blocks”. They recommend that users should develop an overall strategy based on solid business cases not “cloud for the sake of cloud”; use modular design in all new software to minimize costs when it comes time to migrate to the cloud; and set up a Cloud CIO Council to advise industry.

Applications in the Pharmaceutical Industry

In the pharmaceutical sector, where large amounts of sensitive data are currently kept behind protective firewalls, security is a real concern, as is policing individual researchers’ access to the cloud. Nevertheless, cheminformatics vendors are starting to look at cloud options, especially in terms of Software as a Service (SaaS) and hosted informatics. In bioinformatics and number-crunching, the cloud has distinct advantages. EC2 billing is typically hours times number of cpus, so, as an over-generalization, the cost for 1 cpu for 1000 hours is the same as the cost of 1000 cpus for 1 hour.
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#17
cloud computing



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Introduction
Background


Cloud Computing is one of the most impacting technology innovations today. Significant investments have been
made on several initiatives in the start-up world, major technology players as well as business institutions. All
participants and stakeholders in the Technology and IT Services industry are keenly involved in understanding what
it can offer, how it can change the information technology landscape, its impact on their businesses, benefits it can
provide as well as the challenges associated in leveraging the concept.
Cloud computing is the convergence of several concepts - from virtualization, distributed applications, grid, maturity
of enterprise software applications and enterprise IT management - to enable a dynamic, flexible and economic
approach for deploying and scaling enterprise IT.
Cloud Computing is fundamentally based on the long-held dream of performing Computing as a Utility; it has the
potential to transform a large part of the IT industry, making software even more attractive as a service and shaping
the way IT hardware is designed, purchased, provisioned and managed. With the universal adoption of Internet as a
global platform for business, adoption of virtualized hardware platforms for processing needs, maturity of enterprise
technologies on the Internet platform to deliver enterprise grade business applications, it is becoming apparent that
computing as Utility is now a distinct possibility. Businesses have now moved beyond the control-and-manage
mindset when it comes to business applications which enable adoption of utility based models, not only for
hardware requirements, but also for functionally rich, process integrated and domain intensive software
applications.
Businesses have become more resilient in the wake of the recent economic downturn and there is a significant shift in
the way IT investments are planned and implemented today. Cloud computing is tremendously attractive to
businesses as it enables them to fundamentally shift their capital intensive focus to a flexible operational
management model. In this flexible model, businesses need not be concerned about over-investing for services
which are not profitable, thus wasting expensive resources, or under-investing for services that deliver outstanding
results, thus missing potential customers and revenue. The critical need to achieve this flexibility and the related
intrinsic behaviors will accelerate the (already high pitched) focus on cloud computing.
There are several successful examples of this model in the industry today. Virtualization solutions for hardware
platforms have proven to be widely successful and most of the Financial Services institutions have initiated or
running enterprise wide programs in this area. Software as a Service (SaaS) is also prominently successful in specific
functional areas (like Sales Force Automation, Origination, etc) and Platform Solutions have been successfully
deployed for many of the corporate functions (like F&A, HR, Procurement, Reconciliations, etc).
This paper focuses on understanding the potential impact of Cloud Computing Solutions in the Banking and
Financial Services industry, setting the overall context of the current state, looking at the various considerations for
adoption and solution possibilities in the near future.
This paper is intended for senior Technologists, Service Delivery Managers, Enterprise Architects and Portfolio
Owners who run the IT portfolio in BFS institutions as well as others who are interested in this concept.

Cloud Computing-Strategic considerations for Banking & Financial Services Institutions

Cloud Computing-Strategic considerations for Banking & Financial Services Institutions
TCS believes that Cloud Computing will prove very attractive to the Enterprise IT world and specifically to IT service
providers, primarily due the infinite opportunities around innovative business models. While the technology
foundations of Cloud Computing can be considered as a gradual evolution, TCS firmly believes that the business
models will prove to be potentially disruptive.

Key Definitions
While the industry is abuzz with the hype around Cloud Computing, there is still considerable debate on what Cloud
Computing actually means. There are multiple definitions of the concept, scope, content, capabilities, expectations,
strategies, technologies and architectures.
In simple terms cloud computing is a style of computing where massively scalable IT-enabled capabilities are
provided as a service over the network. A Cloud is a set of IT infrastructure optimization techniques rolled into one and
offered as a shared service to its users. A Cloud Computing model is generally characterized by:
lA true on-demand computing paradigm
lDecoupling of application design and development from deployment
lAutomated system deployment and scaling
lA pay-per-use pricing model
lFlexible access models
Cloud computing delivery models can be distinguished based on the level of abstractions they export to the Cloud
users (or programmers) and the level of computing resource management (flexibility) they offer. Based on this
characterization, today’s Cloud delivery models can be broadly

classified into three categories:
1. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): These Cloud service providers offer computational resources such as servers,
network, and storage from a shared facility managed by the provider to Cloud users on an on-demand basis.
2. Platform as a Service (PaaS): The Cloud service providers export application development platforms that
broadly fall into two categories - Those that export application development platforms for certain domains or
class of applications (Ex: Google AppEngine and Force.com) and those that export general purpose application
development platforms (Ex: Microsoft’s Azure).
3. Software as a service (SaaS): The Software as a Service Cloud service providers offer specific application services
delivered over the Internet on some form of on-demand payment system (Ex: Salesforce.com).
Cloud computing deployment model is characterized into four categories:

lPublic Cloud - Public cloud services are characterized as being available to clients from a third party service
provider via the Internet. This does not mean that a user’s data is publically visible; public cloud vendors typically
provide an access control mechanism for their users. Public clouds provide an elastic, cost effective means to
deploy solutions.
lPrivate Cloud - A private cloud offers many of the benefits of a public cloud computing environment, such as
being elastic and service based. In addition, data and processes are managed within the organization without the
restrictions of network bandwidth, security exposures and legal requirements that using public cloud services
might entail. This offers greater control of the cloud infrastructure, improving security and resiliency.
lCommunity Cloud - A community cloud is controlled and used by a group of organizations that have shared
interests, such as specific security requirements or a common mission. The members of the community share
access to the data and applications in the cloud.
lHybrid Cloud - A hybrid cloud is a combination of a public and private cloud that interoperates. In this model
users typically outsource non-business-critical information and processing to the public cloud, while keeping
business-critical services and data in their control.
There are significant unknowns and challenges associated with Cloud Computing; while the concept has been
existing for multiple years, core capabilities to enable enterprise adoption is still in nascent state.

Industry Forecasts

The IT industry forecasts exponential investments and adoption rates for Cloud Computing. This is corroborated by
the reactions and behavior within the businesses which are preparing themselves for growth as the economy turns
the corner.
l69% of North America’s Internet users are using some form of Internet-based computing, such as web-based email
or photo storage, according to a study by Pew Research Center; more than 55% of North American users are
part of Social Communities which run on typical cloud computing environments today. It is already established
and successful in the Social space.
l“By 2011, early technology adopters will forego capital expenditures and instead purchase 40 percent of their IT
infrastructure as a service,” states Gartner Group. “Increased high-speed bandwidth makes it practical to locate
infrastructure at other sites and still receive the same response times."
lWhat impact will a long-term, global recession have on cloud computing? A survey by ScanSafe, a SaaS provider
of security services, revealed that 78% of IT managers believe economic uncertainty makes SaaS more
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#18
cloud computing


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. Introduction



Imagine yourself in the world where the users of the computer of today’s internet world don’t have to run, install or store their application or data on their own computers, imagine the world where every piece of your information or data would reside on the Cloud (Internet).
As a metaphor for the Internet, "the cloud" is a familiar cliché, but when combined with "computing", the meaning gets bigger and fuzzier. Some analysts and vendors define cloud computing narrowly as an updated version of utility computing: basically virtual servers available over the Internet. Others go very broad, arguing anything you consume outside the firewall is "in the cloud", including conventional outsourcing.
Cloud computing comes into focus only when you think about what we always need: a way to increase capacity or add capabilities on the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel, or licensing new software. Cloud computing encompasses any subscription-based or pay-per-use service that, in real time over the Internet, extends ICT's existing capabilities.
Cloud computing is at an early stage, with a motley crew of providers large and small delivering a slew of cloud-based services, from full-blown applications to storage services to spam filtering. Yes, utility-style infrastructure providers are part of the mix, but so are SaaS (software as a service) providers such as Salesforce.com. Today, for the most part, IT must plug into cloud-based services individually, but cloud computing aggregators and integrators are already emerging.

Cloud computing- The Concept

Cloud computing is Internet ("cloud") based development and use of computer technology ("computing"). It is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.
The concept incorporates infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and software as a service (SaaS) as well as Web 2.0 and other recent technology trends which have the common theme of reliance on the Internet for satisfying the computing needs of the users. Examples of SaaS vendors include Salesforce.com and Google Apps which provide common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the servers.
The term cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on how the Internet is depicted in computer network diagrams, and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals.

Comparison:
Cloud computing is often confused with grid computing ("a form of distributed computing whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely-coupled computers, acting in concert to perform very large tasks"), utility computing (the "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility such as electricity") and autonomic computing ("computer systems capable of self-management").
Indeed many cloud computing deployments as of 2009 depend on grids, have autonomic characteristics and bill like utilities — but cloud computing can be seen as a natural next step from the grid-utility model. Some successful cloud architectures have little or no centralized infrastructure or billing systems whatsoever, including peer-to-peer networks like Bit Torrent and Skype and volunteer computing like


Implementation:
The majority of cloud computing infrastructure as of 2009 consists of reliable services delivered through data centers and built on servers with different levels of virtualization technologies. The services are accessible anywhere that has access to networking infrastructure. The Cloud appears as a single point of access for all the computing needs of consumers. Commercial offerings need to meet the quality of service requirements of customers and typically offer service level agreements. Open standards are critical to the growth of cloud computing and open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations.

Characteristics:
As customers generally do not own the infrastructure, they merely access or rent, they can avoid capital expenditure and consume resources as a service, paying instead for what they use. Many cloud-computing offerings have adopted the utility computing model, which is analogous to how traditional utilities like electricity are consumed, while others are billed on a subscription basis. Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power among multiple tenants can improve utilization rates, as servers are not left idle, which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development. A side effect of this approach is that "computer capacity rises dramatically" as customers do not have to engineer for peak loads. Adoption has been enabled by "increased high-speed bandwidth" which makes it possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites.

Economics:
Cloud computing users can avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software and services, rather paying a provider only for what they use. Consumption is billed on a utility (e.g. resources consumed, like electricity) or subscription (e.g. time based, like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost. Other benefits of this time sharing style approach are low barriers to entry, shared infrastructure and costs, low management overhead and immediate access to a broad range of applications. Users can generally terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty) and the services are often covered by service level agreements with financial penalties.
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#19
Cloud computing



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Cloud computing is a technology that uses the internet and central remote servers to maintain data and applications. Cloud computing allows consumers and businesses to use applications without installation and access their personal files at any computer with internet access. This technology allows for much more efficient computing by centralizing storage, memory, processing and bandwidth.
A simple example of cloud computing is Yahoo email, Gmail, or Hotmail etc. You dont need a software or a server to use them. All a consumer would need is just an internet connection and you can start sending emails. The server and email management software is all on the cloud ( internet) and is totally managed by the cloud service provider Yaho , Google etc. The consumer gets to use the software alone and enjoy the benefits. The analogy is , 'If you need milk , would you buy a cow ?' All the users or consumers need is to get the benefits of using the software or hardware of the computer like sending emails etc. Just to get this benefit (milk) why should a consumer buy a (cow) software /hardware ?




Cloud computing companies

At the present time of modern world, you don’t need to carry large amounts of documents with you during traveling from town to town or country to country, because a lot of cloud computing companies are available to serve you. Cloud computing is one kind of web-based storage that permits you to store numerous information from everywhere. You only you need to have an internet connection, and a subscription from any of the cloud computing companies.
Nowadays, online business is expanding day by day. Many people show eagerness to earn extra money through online business. They need to communicate with their large amount of target audiences. They have to share their business policy with clients. They have to set several meetings with their partners also. If they have no cloud computing system, they will have to face a lot of problems in carrying the documents. But now with the help of cloud computing companies you don’t need to carry these documents with you.



Why The Cloud Computing Market Is Always Growing

Nowadays, cloud computing service is one kind of cost-saving technique offered by the cloud computing companies. It is mainly helpful to store files online. A lot of business companies don’t know the use of brilliant cloud computing technique and they have no cost saving technique in their hands. Cloud computing is the excellent way to save the money in any business policy and best medium to focus the objectives of the company.
Mainly, cloud computing is one kind of model to use storage space online.



Most Popular Cloud Computing Providers

There are a number of cloud computing companies on market now, but it is relatively difficult to choose the best one for your business purpose. Who is excellent cloud provider it is very important to know because it will be handy to fulfill your requirements. At the time of researching, you should check the criteria of that cloud provider. Here are some basic requirements for identifying the excellent and popular cloud computing providers below:
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#20
CLOUD COMPUTING



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INTRODUCTION

Cloud computing is the next natural step in the evolution of on-demand information technology services and products. To a large extent cloud computing will be based on virtualized resources. The idea of cloud computing is based on a very fundamental principal of `reusability of IT capabilities`. The difference that cloud computing brings compared to traditional concepts of ―grid computing‖, ―distributed computing‖, ―utility computing‖, or ―autonomic computing‖ is to broaden horizons across organizational boundaries.
According to the IEEE Computer Society Cloud Computing is:
"A paradigm in which information is permanently stored in servers on the
Internet and cached temporarily on clients that include desktops,
Entertainment centers, table computers, notebooks, wall computers, handhelds, etc."
Though many cloud computing architectures and deployments are powered by grids, based on autonomic characteristics and consumed on the basis of utilities billing, the concept of a cloud is fairly distinct and complementary to the concepts of grid, SaaS, Utility Computing etc. In theory, cloud computing promises availability of all required hardware, software, platform, applications, infrastructure and storage with an ownership of just an internet connection.
people can access the information that they need from any device with an Internet connection—including mobile and handheld phones—rather than being chained to the desktop. It also means lower costs, since there is no need to install software or hardware.‖


Concepts

A powerful underlying and enabling concept is computing through service-oriented architectures (SOA) - delivery of an integrated and orchestrated suite of functions to an end-user through composition of both loosely and tightly coupled functions, or services - often network based. Related concepts are component-based system engineering, orchestration of different services through workflows, and virtualization.

Cyber infrastructure

Cyber infrastructure makes applications dramatically easier to develop and deploy, thus expanding the feasible scope of applications possible within budget and organizational constraints, and shifting the scientist’s and engineer’s effort away from information technology development and concentrating it on scientific and engineering research. Cyber infrastructure also increases efficiency, quality, and reliability by capturing commonalities among application needs, and facilitates the efficient sharing of equipment and services.
Today, almost any business or major activity uses, or relies in some form, on IT and IT services. These services need to be enabling and appliance-like, and there must be an economy of- scale for the total-cost-of-ownership to be better than it would be without cyber infrastructure. Technology needs to improve end-user productivity and reduce Technology-driven overhead

Service-Oriented Architecture

SOA is not a new concept, although it again has been receiving considerable attention in recent years [e.g., Bel08, IBM08a]. Examples of some of the first network-based service-oriented architectures are remote procedure calls (RPC), DCOM and Object Request Brokers (ORBs) based on the CORBA specifications . A more recent example are so called ―Grid Computing‖ architectures and solutions . In an SOA environment end-users request an IT service (or an integrated collection of such services) at the desired functional, quality and capacity level, and receive the reponse at the time requested or at a specified later time. Service discovery, brokering, and reliability are important .Goal of the SOA is that creating an architecture in which servises are able to communicate using http protocol It is expected that in the next 10 years, service-based solutions will be a major vehicle for delivery of information and other IT assisted functions at both individual and organizational levels.


Cloud Architecture
Cloud architecture the systems architecture of the software systems involved
in the delivery of cloud computing, comprises hardware and software designed by a cloud architect who typically works for a cloud integrator. It typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces, usually web services.
This closely resembles the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts.
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#21
Cloud computing


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Characteristics

Cloud computing customers do not generally own the physical infrastructure serving as host to the software platform in question. Instead, they avoid capital expenditure by renting usage from a third-party provider. They consume resources as a service and pay only for resources that they use. Many cloud-computing offerings employ the utility computing model, which is analogous to how traditional utility services (such as electricity) are consumed, while others bill on a subscription A side effect of this approach is that overall computer usage rises dramatically, as customers do not have to engineer for peak load limits. Additionally, "increased high-speed bandwidth" .

Cloud computing users can avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software, and services when they pay a provider only for what they use. Consumption is usually billed on a utility (e.g. resources consumed, like electricity) or subscription (e.g. time based, like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost. A few cloud providers are now beginning to offer the service for a flat monthly fee as opposed to on a utility billing basis. Other benefits of this time sharing style approach are low barriers to entry, shared infrastructure and costs, low management overhead, and immediate access to a broad range of applications. Users can generally terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty) and the services are often covered by service level agreements (SLAs) with financial penalties.

Companies:

The "big four" of cloud computing services are said to be Amazon, Google, Microsoft and Salesforce.com. Cloud computing is also being adopted by individual users through large enterprise customers including General Electric, Procter & Gamble and Valeo.

Disadvantages:

Because cloud computing does not allow users to physically possess the storage of their data (the exception being the possibility that data can be backed up to a user-owned storage device, such as a USB flash drive or hard disk), it does leave responsibility of data storage and control in the hands of the provider. Responsibility for backup data, disaster recovery and other static "snapshots" has been a long-standing concern for both outsourced as well as resident IT systems. Additional issues are raised around process (methods, functions, transactions, etc.) visibility and transportability given the more complex nature of cloud and web service systems.. QoS (Quality of Service), SLAs (Service Level Agreements) and other parametric behaviors need to be specified as well as monitored for compliance.

Political issues:

The Cloud spans many borders and "may be the ultimate form of globalization." As such, it becomes subject to complex geopolitical issues, and providers are pressed to satisfy myriad regulatory environments in order to deliver service to a global market. This dates back to the early days of the Internet, when libertarian thinkers felt that "cyberspace was a distinct place calling for laws and legal institutions of its own".
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#22
main theme of cloud computing for agent based urban transpotation systems
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#23
cloud computing



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INTRODUCTION

Cloud computing is a promising computing paradigm which recently has drawn extensive attention from both academia and industry. By combining a set of existing andnew techniques from research areas such as Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA) and virtualization, cloud computing is regarded as such a computing paradigm in which resources in the computing infrastructure are provided as services over the Internet.Along with this new paradigm, various business models are developed, which can be described by terminology of “X as a service (XaaS)”,where X could be software,hardware, data storage, and etc. Successful examples are Amazon’s EC2 and S3,Google App Engine and Microsoft Azure which provide users with scalableresources in the pay-as-you use fashion at relatively low prices. For example Amazon S3 data storage service just charges $0.12 to $0.15 per gigabyte month.
As compared to building their own infrastructures, users are able to save their investments significantlyby migrating businesses into the cloud. With the increasing development of cloudcomputing technologies, it is not hard to imagine that in the near future more and morebusinesses will be moved into the cloud.Cloud computing is also facing many challenges that, if not well resolved, may impede its fast growth. Data security, as it exists in many other applications, is among these challenges that would raise great concerns from users when they store sensitive information on cloud servers. These concerns originate from the fact that cloud servers are usually operated by commercial providers which are very likely to be outside of the trusted domain of the users.
Data confidential against cloud servers is hence frequently desired when users outsource data for storage in the cloud. In some practical applicationsystems, data confidentiality is not only a security/privacy issue, but also of juristic concerns. For example, in healthcare application scenarios use and disclosure of protected health information (PHI) should meet the requirements of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), and keeping user data confidential against the storage servers is not just an option, but a requirement.
Furthermore, we observe that there are also cases in which cloud users themselves are content providers. They publish data on cloud servers for sharing and need fine-grained data access control in terms of which user (data consumer) has the access privilege to which types of data. In thehealth care case, for example, a medical center would be the data owner who stores millions of healthcare records in the cloud. It would allow data consumers such as doctors, patients, researchers and etc, to access various types of healthcare records under policies admitted by HIPAA. To enforce these access policies, the data owners on one hand would like to take advantage of the abundant resources that the cloud provides for efficiency and economy, on the other hand, they may want to keep the data contents confidential against cloud servers.
We address this open issue and propose a secure and scalable fine-grained dataaccess control scheme for cloud computing. Our proposed scheme is partially based on our observation that, in practical application scenarios each data file can be associated with a set of attributes which are meaningful in the context of interest. The access structure of each user can thus be defined as a unique logical expression over these attributes to reflect the scope of data files that the user is allowed to access.As the logical expression can represent any desired data file set, fine-grainedness of data access control is achieved.

To enforce these access structures, we define a publickey component for each attribute. Data files are encrypted using public key components corresponding to their attributes. User secret keys are defined to reflect their accessstructures so that a user is able to decrypt a cipher text if and only if the data file attributes satisfy his access structure. Such a design also brings about the efficiency benefit, as compared to previous works.1) the complexity of encryption is just related the number of attributes associated to the data file, and is independent to the number of users in the system
2) data file creation/deletion and new user grantoperations just affect current file/user without involving system-wide data file update or re-keying.

One extremely challenging issue with this design is the implementation of user revocation, which would inevitably require re-encryption of data files accessible to the leaving user, and may need update of secret keys for all the remaining users. If all these tasks are performed by the data owner himself/herself, it would introduce a heavy computation overhead on him/her and may also require the data owner to be always online. To resolve this challenging issue, our proposed scheme enables the data owner to delegate tasks of data file re-encryption and user secret key update to cloud servers without disclosing data contents or user access privilege information. We achieve ourdesign goals by exploiting a novel cryptographic primitive, namely key policy attribute-based encryption.

MODELS AND ASSUMPTIONS
System Models


Similar to Enabling Public Verifiability and Data Dynamics for Storage Securityin Cloud Computing,we assume that the system is composed of the following parties,the Data Owner, many Data Consumers, many Cloud Servers, and a Third Party Auditor if necessary. To access data files shared by the data owner, Data Consumers, or users for brevity, download data files of their interest from Cloud Servers and then decrypt.
Neither the data owner nor users will be always online. They come online just on the necessity basis. For simplicity, we assume that the only access privilege for users is datafile reading. Extending our proposed scheme to support data file writing is trivial by asking the data writer to sign the new data file on each update as does. From now on,we will also call data files by files for brevity.
Cloud Servers are always online and operated by the Cloud Service Provider (CSP). They are assumed to have abundant storage capacity and computation power. The Third Party Auditor is also an online party which is used for auditing every file access event. In addition, we also assume that the data owner can not only store data files but also run his own code on Cloud Servers to manage his data files.
This assumption coincides with the unified ontology of cloudcomputing which is recently proposed by Youseff et al.

Security Models

In this work, we just consider Honest but Curious Cloud Servers as Over-encryption: Management of access control evolution on outsourced data does. That is to say, Cloud Servers will follow our proposed protocol in general, but try to find out as much secret information as possible based on their inputs. More specifically, we assume Cloud Servers are more interested in file contents and user access privilege information than other secret information. Cloud Servers might collude with a small number of malicious users for the purpose of harvesting file contents when it is highly beneficial.Communication channel between the data owner/users and Cloud Servers are assumed to be secured under existing security protocols such as SSL. Users would try to access files either within or outside the scope of their access privileges. To achieve this goal,unauthorized users may work independently or cooperatively. In addition, each party is preloaded with a public/private key pair and the public key can be easily obtained byother parties when necessary.

Design Goals

Our main design goal is to help the data owner achieve fine-grained access control on files stored by Cloud Servers. Specifically, we want to enable the data owner to enforce a unique access structure on each user, which precisely designates the set of files that the user is allowed to access. We also want to prevent Cloud Servers from beingable to learn both the data file contents and user access privilege information. In addition,the proposed scheme should be able to achieve security goals like user accountability and support basic operations such as user grant/revocation as a general one-to-many communication system would require. All these design goals should be achieved efficiently in the sense that the system is scalable.

SYSTEM STUDY
EXISTING SYSTEM


Our existing solution applies cryptographic methods by disclosing data decryption keys only to authorized users. These solutions inevitably introduce a heavy computationoverhead on the data owner for key distribution and data management when fine graineddata access control is desired, and thus do not scale well.
Disadvantages

Software update/patches-
could change security settings, assigning privileges too low, or even more alarmingly too high allowing access to your data by other parties.

•Securityconcerns-
Experts claim that their clouds are 100% secure - but it will not be their head on the block when things go away. It's often stated that cloudcomputing security is better than most enterprises. Also, how do you decide which data to handle in the cloud and which to keep to internal systems – once decided keeping it secure could well be a full-time task?

•Control-
Control of your data/system by third-party. Data - once in the cloud always in the cloud! Can you be sure that once you delete data from your cloud account will it not exist any more or will traces remain in the cloud?

PROPOSED SYSTEM

Main Idea


In order to achieve secure, scalable and fine-grained access control on outsourceddata in the cloud, we utilize and uniquely combine the following three advancedcryptographic techniques:
•Key Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (KP-ABE).
•Proxy Re-Encryption (PRE)
•Lazy re-encryption

Advantages
•Low initial capital investment
•Shorter start-up time for new services
•Lower maintenance and operation costs
•Higher utilization through virtualization
•Easier disaster recovery

More specifically, we associate each data file with a set of attributes, and assign each user an expressive access structure which is defined over these attributes. To enforce this kind of access control,we utilize KP-ABE to escort data encryption keys of data files. Such a construction enables us to immediately enjoy fine-grainedness of access control. However, this construction, if deployed alone, would introduce heavy computation overhead and cumbersome onlineburden towards the data owner, as he is in charge of all the operations of data/user management. Specifically, such an issue is mainly caused by the operation of user revocation, which inevitably requires the dataowner to re-encrypt all the data files accessible to the leaving user, oreven needs the data owner to stay online to update secret keys for users. To resolve this challenging issue and make the construction suitable for cloud computing, we uniquely combine PRE with KP-ABEand enable the data owner to delegate most of the computation intensive operations to Cloud Servers without disclosing the underlying file contents. Such a construction allows the data owner to control access of his data files with a minimal overhead in terms of computation effort and online time, and thus fits well into the cloud environment. Data confidentiality is also achieved since Cloud Servers are not able to learn the plaintext of any data file in our construction.For further reducing the computation overhead on Cloud Servers and thus saving the data owner’s investment, we take advantage of the lazy re-encryption technique and allow Cloud Servers to “aggregate”computation tasks of multiple system operations. As the computation complexity on Cloud Servers is either proportional to the number of system attributes, or linear to the size of the user access structure/tree, which is independent to the number of users in the system. Scalability is thus achieved. In addition, our construction also protects user access privilege information against Cloud Servers. Accountability of user secret key can also be achieved by using an enhanced scheme of KP-ABE.
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#24
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#25
Cloud computing


.docx   Cloud computing.docx (Size: 81.6 KB / Downloads: 34)


In Computer science, Cloud computing is a marketing term. In the case of electricity, users can simply use it. They do not need to worry where the electricity is from, how it is generated, or transported. At the end of the month, they will get a bill for the amount of electricity they consumed.
The idea behind cloud computing is similar: The user can simply use storage, computing power, or specially crafted development environments, without having to worry how these work internally. Cloud computing is a systems architecture model for Internet-based computing. It is the development and use of computer technology on the Internet. The cloud is a metaphor for the Internet based on how the internet is described in computer network diagrams; which means it is an abstraction hiding the complex infrastructure of the internet.[1] It is a style of computing in which IT-related capabilities are provided “as a service”,[2] allowing users to access technology-enabled services from the Internet ("in the cloud")[3] without knowledge of, or control over the technologies behind these servers.[4]
According to a paper published by IEEE Internet Computing in 2008 "Cloud Computing is a paradigm in which information is permanently stored in servers on the Internet and cached temporarily on clients that include computers, laptops, handhelds, sensors, etc."[5]
Cloud computing is a general concept that utilizes software as a service (SaaS), such as Web 2.0 and other technology trends, all of which depend on the Internet for satisfying users' needs. For example, Google Apps provides common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the Internet servers.

Brief

Comparisons

Cloud computing is often confused with grid computing (a form of distributed computing whereby a "super and virtual computer" is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely-coupled computers, working together to perform very large tasks), utility computing (the packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage are provided as a measured service that have to be paid similar to a traditional public utility such as electricity)[6] and autonomic computing (computer systems capable of self-management).[7]
Many cloud computing deployments are today powered by grids, have autonomic characteristics and are billed like utilities, but cloud computing can be seen as a natural next step from the grid-utility model.[8] Some successful cloud architectures have little or no centralised infrastructure or billing systems at all including peer-to-peer networks like BitTorrent and Skype.[9]

Architecture

The majority of cloud computing infrastructure currently consists of reliable services delivered through data centers that are built on computer and storage virtualization technologies. The services are accessible anywhere in the world, with The Cloud appearing as a single point of access for all the computing needs of consumers. Commercial offerings need to meet the quality of service requirements of customers and typically offer service level agreements.[10] Open standards and open source software are also critical to the growth of cloud computing.[11]

Characteristics

As customers generally do not own the infrastructure or know all details about it, mainly they are accessing or renting, so they can consume resources as a service, and may be paying for what they do not need, instead of what they actually do need to use. Many cloud computing providers have adopted the utility computing model which is analogous to how traditional public utilities like electricity are consumed, while others are billed on a subscription basis. By sharing consumable and "intangible" computing power between multiple "tenants", utilization rates can be improved (as servers are not left idle) which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development. A side effect of this approach is that "computer capacity rises dramatically" as customers do not have to engineer for peak loads.[12] Adoption has been enabled by "increased high-speed bandwidth" which makes it possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites.

Providers

Cloud computing is being driven by providers including Google, Amazon.com, and Yahoo! as well as traditional vendors including IBM, Intel[13], Microsoft[14] and SAP[15]. It is adopted from individual users through large enterprises as General Electric.

History

The Cloud[18] is a metaphor for the Internet,[19] or more generally components and services which are managed by others.[1]
The underlying concept dates back to 1960 when John McCarthy expressed his opinion that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility" and the term Cloud was already in commercial use in the early 1990s to refer to large ATM networks.[20] By the turn of the 21st century, cloud computing solutions had started to appear on the market,[21] though most of the focus at this time was on Software as a service.
Amazon.com played a key role in the development of cloud computing when upgrading their data centers after the dot-com bubble and providing access to their systems by way of Amazon Web Services in 2002 on a utility computing basis. They found the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements.[22]
2007 observed increased activity, including Google, IBM and a number of universities starting large scale cloud computing research project,[23] around the time the term started gaining popularity in the mainstream press. It was a hot topic by mid-2008 and numerous cloud computing events had been scheduled.[24]
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#26
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#27
cloud computing


.pptx   Cloud computing.pptx (Size: 113.22 KB / Downloads: 26)


ABSTRACT

Cloud computing Cloud computing economically enables the paradigm of data service outsourcing. economically enables the paradigm of data service outsourcing.
However, to protect data privacy, sensitive cloud data have to be encrypted before outsourced to the commercial public cloud, which makes effective data utilization service a very challenging task.
Although traditional searchable encryption techniques allow users to securely search over encrypted data through keywords, they support only Boolean search and are not yet sufficient to meet the effective data utilization need that is inherently demanded by large number of users and huge amount of data files in cloud.
The resulting design is able to facilitate efficient server-side ranking without losing keyword privacy.



EXISTING SYSYTEM


Although traditional searchable encryption schemes allow a user to securely search over encrypted data through keywords without first decrypting it, these techniques support only conventional Boolean keyword search.
When directly applied in large collaborative data outsourcing cloud environment, they may suffer from the following two main drawbacks.
On the one hand, for each search request, users without pre-knowledge of the encrypted cloud data have to go through every retrieved file in order to find ones most matching their interest.


PROPOSED SYSTEM


Our work is among the first few ones to explore ranked search over encrypted data in Cloud Computing.
Ranked search greatly enhances system usability by returning the matching files in a ranked order regarding to certain relevance criteria (e.g., keyword frequency), thus making one step closer toward practical deployment of privacy-preserving data hosting services in the context of Cloud Computing.
To achieve our design goals on both system security and usability, we propose to bring together the advance of both crypto and IR community to design the ranked searchable symmetric encryption (RSSE) scheme, in the spirit of “as-strong-as-possible” security guarantee.
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#28
cloud computing Project Idea


.doc   Cloud computing.doc (Size: 91 KB / Downloads: 30)

Introduction
"Cloud Computing," to put it simply, means "Internet Computing." The Internet is commonly visualized as clouds; hence the term “cloud computing” for computation done through the Internet. With Cloud Computing users can access database resources via the Internet from anywhere, for as long as they need, without worrying about any maintenance or management of actual resources. Besides, databases in cloud are very dynamic and scalable.
Cloud computing is unlike grid computing, utility computing, or autonomic computing. In fact, it is a very independent platform in terms of computing. The best example of cloud computing is Google Apps where any application can be accessed using a browser and it can be deployed on thousands of computer through the Internet.
Key Characteristics
Cloud computing is cost-effective. Here, cost is greatly reduced as initial expense and recurring expenses are much lower than traditional computing. Maintenance cost is reduced as a third party maintains everything from running the cloud to storing data. Cloud is characterized by features such as platform, location and device independency, which make it easily adoptable for all sizes of businesses, in particular small and mid-sized. However, owing to redundancy of computer system networks and storage system cloud may not be reliable for data, but it scores well as far as security is concerned. In cloud computing, security is tremendously improved because of a superior technology security system, which is now easily available and affordable. Yet another important characteristic of cloud is scalability, which is achieved through server virtualization.
In a nutshell, cloud computing means getting the best performing system with the best value for money.
Cloud Computing Architecture
Cloud computing architecture, just like any other system, is categorized into two main sections: Front End and Back End. Front End can be end user or client or any application (i.e. web browser etc.) which is using cloud services. Back End is the network of servers with any computer program and data storage system. It is usually assumed that cloud contains infinite storage capacity for any software available in market. Cloud has different applications that are hosted on their own dedicated server farms.
Cloud has centralized server administration system. Centralized server administers the system, balances client supply, adjusts demands, monitors traffic and avoids congestion. This server follows protocols, commonly known as middleware. Middleware controls the communication of cloud network among them.
Cloud Architecture runs on a very important assumption, which is mostly true. The assumption is that the demand for resources is not always consistent from client to cloud. Because of this reason the servers of cloud are unable to run at their full capacity. To avoid this scenario, server virtualization technique is applied. In sever virtualization, all physical servers are virtualized and they run multiple servers with either same or different application. As one physical server acts as multiple physical servers, it curtails the need for more physical machines.
As a matter of fact, data is the most important part of cloud computing; thus, data security is the top most priority in all the data operations of cloud. Here, all the data are backed up at multiple locations. This astoundingly increases the data storage to multiple times in cloud compared with a regular system. Redundancy of data is crucial, which is a must-have attribute of cloud computing.
Different forms of Cloud Computing
Google Apps., Salesforce.com, Zoho Office and various other online applications use cloud computing as Software-As-Service (SAAS) model. These applications are delivered through browser, and multiple customers can access it from various locations. This model has become the most common form of cloud computing because it is beneficial and practical for both the customers and the services providers. For customers, there is no upfront investment and they can Pay-As-They-Go and Pay-As-They-Grow. On the other hand, the service providers, can grow easily as their customer base grows.
Aamzon.com, Sun and IBM offer on-demand storage and computing resources. Web service and APIs enable developers to use all the cloud from internet and allow them to create large-scale, full-featured application. Cloud is not simply limited to providing data storage or computing resources, it can also provide managed services or specific application services through web.

Cloud Computing Concerns

Security of confidential data (e.g., SSN or Credit Card Numbers) is a very important area of concern as it can make way for very big problems if unauthorized users get access to it. Misuse of data can create big issues; hence, in cloud computing it is very important to be aware of data administrators and their extent of data access rights. Large organizations dealing with sensitive data often have well laid out regulatory compliance policies. However, these polices should be verified prior to engaging them in cloud computing. There is a possibility that in cloud computing network, sometimes the network utilizes resources from another country or they might not be fully protected; hence, the need arises for appropriate regulatory compliance policies.
In cloud computing, it is very common to store data of multiple customers at one common location. Cloud computing should have proper techniques where data is segregated properly for data security and confidentiality. Care must be taken to ensure that one customer’s data does not affect another customer’s data. In addition, Cloud computing providers must be equipped with proper disaster recovery policies to deal with any unfortunate event.

Selection of Provider

A good service provider is the key to good service. So, it is imperative to select the right service provider. One must make sure that the provider is reliable, well-reputed for their customer service and should have a proven track record in IT- related ventures. The Cloud Computing Incidents Database (CCID) records and monitors verifiable, noteworthy events that impact cloud computing providers. Visit the following Wikipedia link to obtain the list all such events. http://wiki.cloudcommunitywiki/CCID
Relational Database and Cloud Computing
Comparison has often been drawn between Relational Database and Cloud Computing. They are related for sure but they should not be confused for being the same thing. In actual fact, they are not really competing with each other. There are some unique requirements of applications when they do not call for any advance query techniques but rather need fast access to database. In such scenarios cloud computing should be used. In cloud, data is stored across myriad geographic locations, and processing data from different geographic database leads to delay in receiving data. In case of applications where there is the need of processing huge database using complex queries, traditional relational database is best suited. Cloud has its limitations. As for now, it only supports distributed computing; transactional operations are not currently supported in cloud computing.
SummaryCloud Computing is the next big thing in the arena of computing and storage. There are some concerns about security and its availability. However, different service providers are coming up with various solutions and suggestions in response to customers’ concerns. In any case, cloud is getting bigger and better, and as long as they are available through web services, without capital infrastructure investment at reasonable price, it is for sure going to proliferate and create robust demand in times to come.




Advantages & Disadvantages of Cloud Computing

Once a term only used by governments, cloud hosting is making its way to businesses both large and small. According to Wikipedia, cloud computing "is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the internet." Image a multitude of servers that are connected through networks to create a cloud where companies are able to store data. Essentially, this cloud acts as an outsourcing agent for server and storage needs.

Just because cloud hosting is becoming a new buzzword, adoption may or may not be the best choice for your company. Read over these pros and cons to learn more about your options with cloud computing.

The Benefits

Hosting your information on an outsourced system (that is maintained by a third-party) can really free up space and cut costs. With cloud hosting, you can

• Access your data at all times – not just while in the office
• A physical storage center is no longer needed
• Most have a pay structure that only calls for payment only when used
• Relieves burden on IT Professionals and frees up their time in the office
• Easily scalable so companies can add or subtract storage based on their own needs

The Negatives

If you are going to move all of your information to data centers situated outside your company, then security should be of utmost importance.

• Lost control comes with handing over your data and information
• Depending on third-party to ensure the security and confidentiality of data and information
• If your cloud host disappears, where does your information go?

If you are a small business, or even a Fortune 500 company, cloud computing can take a large expense and make it work for your budget. Funding the servers, software, and information technology professionals can be a real burden and finding cost-efficient means through cloud hosting can be very beneficial. With Amazon moving into the cloud computing environment, everyone has access to what could be a major change in business intelligence. Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud is a dedicated, high performance, analytic database cluster that is open to businesses, on a pay-per-use scale, for a monthly fee. This sounds like an excellent business deal, if you are prepared to hand over your personal data and information.




Cloud Computing Advantages
There are many advantages a company would have if they would consider cloud computing as part of their business plan. Among them is ease of operations. Every employee will be able to have access to the system wherever they are. A traveling salesman could easily update their database so that the company will be informed immediately about their performance.


Another advantage is the ease of troubleshooting. A specific software installed in the local gadget would need to have a repair from the company’s tech group. But when the company uses cloud computing, any “bugs”, user problems or error in function could be immediately looked into by its developers. There is no need for every user to wait for their turn to have their application fixed.

There is also the monetary consideration in cloud computing. There will be eventual savings the company would experience through cloud computing. Instead of tedious work with local connections and additional infrastructure, a company would just consider a cloud computing vendor which will ensure uptime of the processes.
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#29
cloud computing



.ppt   Cloud Computing.ppt (Size: 4.19 MB / Downloads: 129)

Web-Scale Problems


Characteristics:
Definitely data-intensive
May also be processing intensive
Examples:
Crawling, indexing, searching, mining the Web
“Post-genomics” life sciences research
Other scientific data (physics, astronomers, etc.)
Sensor networks
Web 2.0 applications



How much data


Wayback Machine has 2 PB + 20 TB/month (2006)
Google processes 20 PB a day (2008)
“all words ever spoken by human beings” ~ 5 EB
NOAA has ~1 PB climate data (2007)
CERN’s LHC will generate 15 PB a year (2008)



Large Data Centers


Web-scale problems? Throw more machines at it!
Clear trend: centralization of computing resources in large data centers
Necessary ingredients: fiber, juice, and space
What do Oregon, Iceland, and abandoned mines have in common?
Important Issues:
Redundancy
Efficiency
Utilization
Management



Web Applications


A mistake on top of a hack built on sand held together by duct tape?
What is the nature of software applications?
From the desktop to the browser
SaaS == Web-based applications
Examples: Google Maps, Facebook
How do we deliver highly-interactive Web-based applications?
AJAX (asynchronous JavaScript and XML)
For better, or for worse…


Amazon Web Services


Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)
Rent computing resources by the hour
Basic unit of accounting = instance-hour
Additional costs for bandwidth
Simple Storage Service (S3)
Persistent storage
Charge by the GB/month
Additional costs for bandwidth
You’ll be using EC2/S3 for course assignments!
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