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.pptx   EARTHQUAKE.pptx (Size: 597.57 KB / Downloads: 237)

What is Earthquake?
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.

Seismic loading means application of an earthquake-generated agitation to a structure. It happens at contact surfaces of a structure either with the ground, or with adjacent structures, or with gravity waves from tsunami.

Seismic loading depends, primarily, on:
Anticipated earthquake's parameters at the site
Geotechnical parameters of the site
Structure's parameters
Characteristics of the anticipated gravity waves from tsunami (if applicable).

Material selection to combat seismic loading
Calculate the dead load of the building using a specific material being used for the structure.
Calculation of the base shear- essentially the total lateral force assumed to be delivered to the base of the building.


The Roof
The roof of your property will be the first part of the house that is damaged. However, if your roof is made from concrete or clay tiles they will respond better in the event of an earthquake. If your roof has been damaged in an earthquake, hire a contractor and specifically request that the roof is repaired or reconstructed out of one of these materials. 

House Height
Earthquake research has found that houses with a single storey cope better with the forced shaking which an earthquake will subject your home to. Multi-levels houses can be built to resist earthquakes but they need to be built with reinforced concrete or built on base isolation pads.


.pptx   EARTHQUAKE DETECTION .pptx (Size: 2.09 MB / Downloads: 123)


Electromagnetic Waves

FM stands for frequency modulation.

Usually the bandwidth of FM lies within 88MHz -- 108MHz.

VHF (Very High frequency) range is from 30MHz to 300MHz and fm uses this range.


VHF propagation is called Space wave propagation.

Space wave propagation has two components-(a)Direct component,
(b)Indirect or ground reflected component.

Direct component is propagated by two methods
(a)Line of sight propagation:-Limited by Curvature of Earth and Height of transmitting and receiving antennas.
(b)Scatter propagation:-occurs in ionospheric E-layer due to blobes of air mass and from the ionized trials of meteors ,geomagnetic field variation etc.

Usually the VHF wave penetrates the ionosphere and are lost , but due to the high concentration, electrons and ions in the E-layer having vibration frequency greater than the frequency of FM waves scattering occurs.


Radio echo used to appear one to several times in a day and before two to three weeks of earthquake occurrence. After two to nine days from the last appearance of echo earthquake have occurred.
High density plasma in ionosphere E layer over the epicenter before and after earthquake.
A co-seismic EM phenomenon has been detected in VHF band.
The VHF emissions have been continued for about three hours, after the seismic wave.

The starting times of VHF emissions corresponded to arrival times of seismic P- and S-wave, respectively.

Forecast of focus location

Each receiver is assumed to have a sensitivity region.
Mainly depends on CD component.
When CD anomalies or CDS anomalies are observed by receiver, sensitive region contain the foci of future earthquake .
BT anomalies are observed if the foci of the future earthquake is out of the sensitive regions.
BTS anomalies are observed by vicinal receiver in the case the foci of the future earthquake is located close to the border of the sensitive region.
The time constant of CD component is about 5-10 min for underground earthquake. Time constant is about 1-2 min when foci of future earthquake is located closer to the sea-shore
Therefore the focus location of future earthquakes can be forecasted from the distribution of CD dominance and BT dominance.

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You Interested in hearing details?
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities. The seismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes can also trigger landslides, and occasionally volcanic activity.

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