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 geophysical prospecting for groundwater ppt

I nee power point presentation on Application of electrical resistivity methods on groundwater prospecting.

Geophysical methods are based on the measurement of the physical properties of subsoil lithosphere units. Gravity and magnetic methods are based on the measurement of density and susceptibility contrast, respectively. In groundwater exploration, these are generally needed to determine the contours of rock bed depth in different aquifer structures such as faults, folds, veins and dikes. The seismic method is based on the measurement of velocity contrast and is mainly used to locate the thickness of the overload. Within the overload, the particular velocity range determines the areas that carry the groundwater. Electrical and electromagnetic methods are based on the measurement of the electrical resistivity or the conductivity of the minerals and rocks of the subsoil. The electrical method is very popular in groundwater prospecting. Here, current and potential differences are measured between two points (probes) when the ground is energized by two other current electrodes. Here, the voltage and current ratio multiplied by the geoelectric constant provides the apparent resistivity. Interpretation with curve fitting techniques provides true resistivities and respective thicknesses. Different types of resistivities indicate different types of rocks or minerals. Therefore, the sand is determined with the water content. The electromagnetic method is based on the principle where the primary wave is sent through the transmitter to the ground, and depending on the intensity of the signals, it encounters the depth. The secondary wave generated within the soil is received by the receiver over time. From these secondary waves, apparent resistivities are calculated. The presence of groundwater is then understood with the range of resistivity.
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