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geosynthetic ppt
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Application of geo synthetic materials in civil engineering
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Geosynthetics are synthetic products used to stabilize the terrain. They are usually polymer products used to solve civil engineering problems. This includes eight major product categories: geotextiles, geogrids, geogrids, geomembranes, geosynthetic clay coatings, geofoam, geocells and geocompounds. The polymeric nature of the products makes them suitable for use in the soil where high levels of durability are required. They can also be used in exposed applications. Geosynthetics are available in a wide range of shapes and materials. These products have a wide range of applications and are currently used in many civil, geotechnical, transport, geoenvironmental, hydraulic and private development applications, including roads, aerodromes, railways, embankments, retention structures, reservoirs, canals, dams, control of erosion, sediments. control, landfills, landfills, mining, aquaculture and agriculture.

Inclusions of different types mixed with the soil have been used for thousands of years. They were used in the construction of roads in Roman days to stabilize the roads and their edges. These early attempts were made from natural fibers, weaves or vegetation mixed with the soil to improve the quality of the road, particularly when roads were built on unstable soils. They were also used to build steep slopes as with several pyramids in Egypt and also walls. A fundamental problem with the use of natural materials (wood, cotton, etc.) in a buried environment is the biodegradation that is produced from microorganisms in the soil. With the advent of polymers in the mid-twentieth century, a much more stable material became available. When formulated correctly, lifetimes of centuries can be predicted even in adverse environmental conditions.

The first articles on geosynthetics (as we know them today) in the 1960s documented their use as filters in the United States and as a reinforcement in Europe. A 1977 conference in Paris brought together many of the earliest manufacturers and practitioners. The International Society of Geosynthetics (IGS), founded in 1982, subsequently organized a world conference every four years and its many chapters have additional lectures. Currently, separate geosynthetic institutes, commercial groups and standard setting groups are active. Approximately twenty universities provide independent courses on geosynthetics and almost all include the subject in courses in geotechnical, geo-environmental and hydraulic engineering. Geosynthetics are available around the world and the activity is solid and growing.
 


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