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Hardware of computer
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Hardware of computer


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Keyboard - The keyboard is used to type information into the computer or inputinformation. There are many different keyboard layouts and sizes with the most common for Latin based languages being the QWERTY layout (named for the first 6 keys). The standard keyboard has 101 keys. Notebooks have embedded keys accessible by special keys or by pressing key combinations (CTRL or Command and P for example). Ergonomically designed keyboards are designed to make typing easier. Hand held devices have various and different keyboard configurations andtouch screens.



Removable Storage and/or Disk Drives - All disks need a drive to get information off - or read - and put information on the disk - or write. Each drive is designed for a specific type of disk whether it is a CD, DVD, hard disk or floppy. Often the term 'disk' and 'drive' are used to describe the same thing but it helps to understand that the disk is the storage device which contains computer files - orsoftware - and the drive is the mechanism that runs the disk.

Digital flash drives work slightly differently as they use memory cards to store information so there are no moving parts. Digital cameras also use Flash memory cards to store information, in this case photographs. Hand held devices use digital drives and many also use removable or built in memory cards.



Mouse - Most modern computers today are run using a mouse controlled pointer. Generally if the mouse has two buttons the left one is used to select objects and text and the right one is used to access menus. If the mouse has one button (Mac for instance) it controls all the activity and a mouse with a third button can be used by specific software programs.


Monitors - The monitor shows information on the screen when you type. This is called outputting information. When the computer needs more information it will display a message on the screen, usually through a dialog box. Monitors come in many types and sizes. The resolution of the monitor determines the sharpness of the screen. The resolution can be adjusted to control the screen's display..


Scanners- Scanners allow you to transfer pictures and photographs to your computer. A scanner 'scans' the image from the top to the bottom, one line at a time and transfers it to the computer as a series of bits or a bitmap. You can then take that image and use it in a paint program, send it out as a fax or print it

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A computer system consists of two main elements: hardware and software. Computer hardware is the collection of all the parts that you can physically touch. Computer software, on the other hand, is not something that you can touch. The software is a set of instructions for a computer to perform specific operations. You need hardware and software to run a computer system.

Computer hardware is the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphics card, sound card, and motherboard. On the contrary, the software is instructions that can be stored and executed by hardware. The hardware is run by the software to execute any command or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system.

The template for all modern computers is the architecture of Von Neumann, detailed in a paper of 1945 by the Hungarian mathematician John von Neumann. This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers, a control unit containing an instruction register and a program counter, a storage memory data and instructions, and input and output mechanisms. The meaning of the term has evolved to mean a stored program computer in which an instruction search and data operation can not occur at the same time because they share a common bus. This is known as Von Neumann's bottleneck and often limits system performance.
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