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Human Health and Disease

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1 mark questions
1. What is smack?
2. What are narcotics?
3. Name the vector responsible for causing Chikungunya.
4. Name the microorganism and its enzyme involved in the production of alcohol. Enzyme:
5. Which type of cells is attacked by HIV?
6. What is the effect of CO present in tobacco smoke?
7. Name the addiction causing component of tobacco smoke.
8. Which antimicrobial enzyme is present in tears and saliva?
9. Name the bacteria that normally inhabit vagina.
10. Which protein occurs in the stratum corneum of epidermis?
11. What role macrophages play in providing immunity in humans?
12. What causes swelling of the lower limbs in patients suffering from filariasis?
13. Some allergens trigger sneezing and wheezing in human beings. What causes this type
of response by the body?
14. What type of virus causes AIDS? Name its genetic material.
15. What is a sedative?
16. What is it that prevents a child to suffer from a disease he/she is vaccinated against?
Give reasons.
17. What is MALT?
18. A boy of 10 years had chicken pox. He is not expected to have the same disease for the
rest of his life. Mention how is it possible?
19. Give the name of one causative organism of the filariasis disease.
20. What are stimulants?
21. Name the disease caused by the disorder of cell mediated immune system of body.
2 marks questions questions questions questions
1. What are lymphoid organs? Name any two primary lymphoid organs.
2. Define the term health. Mention any two ways of maintaining it.
3. How do non-specific defense mechanisms resist infection?
4. Which acids are present in the sweat and sebum? How do they help?
5. List the fluids that contain lysozyme.
6. Why is using tobacco in any form injurious to health?
7. Why do sports persons often fall victims to cocaine addiction?
8. Draw a well labeled diagram of antibody molecule. Name the type of cells that produce
this molecule.
9. Explain the following: (2 marks each)
a. Innate immunity
b. Vaccination
c. Properties of innate immunity
d. Activation of acquired immunity
e. Role of lymphoid organs in immune response
f. Autoimmune diseases
h. Primary immune response
i. Secondary immune response
10. List the specific symptoms of amoebiasis. Name the causative organism.
11. Name the lymphoid organ in humans where all the blood cells are produced. Where do
the lymphocytes produced by the lymphoid organ mentioned above migrate and how do
they affect immunity?
12. List the specific symptoms of typhoid. Name its causative agent.
13. Name one plant and the addictive drug extracted from its latex. How does this drug
affect the human body?
14. Name the host and the site where the following occur in the life cycle of a malarial
parasite: a) formation of gametocytes; b) fusion of gametocytes.
15. Why does a doctor administer tetanus antitoxin and not a tetanus vaccine to a child
injured in a roadside accident with a bleeding wound? Explain.
16. Name an opiod drug and its source plant. How does the drug affect the human body?
17. The immune system of a person is suppressed. In the ELISA test, he was found positive
to a pathogen.
a) Name the disease the patient is suffering from.
b) What is the causative organism?
c) Which cells of body are affected by the pathogen?
18. What would happen to immune system if the thymus gland is removed from the body of
a person?
19. Many microbial pathogens enter the gut of humans along with food. What are the
preventive barriers to protect the body from such pathogens? What type of immunity do
you observe in this case?
20. What are interferons? How do interferons check infection of new cells?
21. If a regular dose of drug or alcohol is not provided to an addicted person, he shows
some withdrawal symptoms. List some symptoms.
22. Differentiate between benign and malignant tumors.
23. What is drug dependence?
24. What is morphine? Give its use and abuse.
25. Give various reasons for which alcoholics start drinking.
26. Alcohol is absorbed rapidly. Why?
27. In which part of the GI tract is the alcohol absorbed?
28. Give the effect of smoking mother on the developing baby.
3 marks questions questions questions questions
1. How do drugs affect society?
2. How does drug addiction begin?
3. What is the source of bhang in India? How is it used by addicts?
4. Tobacco smoke is carcinogenic. Elaborate.
5. Explain the role of innate immunity in protection from infectious agents?
6. Explain the phenomenon of adaptive immunity with special reference to its properties,
activation, clonal selection, and its role in vaccination.
7. To which category of cells do the B-cells and t-cells belong? How do they differ from
each other with reference to their formation and responses to antigens?
8. Differentiate between active and passive immunity.
9. Name the pathogen that causes amoebiasis in humans. Give the symptoms and the
mode of transmission of this disease.
10. Name the type of immunity that is present at the time of birth in humans. Explain any two
ways by which it is accomplished?
11. a. Name the respective forms in which the malarial parasite gains entry into human body
and the body of female Anopheles. b. Name the hosts where the sexual and asexual reproduction of malarial parasite
occurs respectively.
c. Name the toxin responsible for the appearance of symptoms of malaria in humans.
Why do these symptoms occur periodically?
12. Name the type of human cell HIV attacks on its entry into the body. Explain the events
that occur in the cell which further lead to cause immunodeficiency syndrome.
13. A. Name the infective stage of Plasmodium which Anopheles mosquito takes along with
the blood meal from an infected human.
B. Why does the infection cause fever in humans?
C. Give a flow chart of the part of the life cycle of this parasite passed in the insect.
14. a. How and at what stage does Plasmodium enter into a human body?
b. With the help of a flowchart only show the stages of asexual reproduction in the life
cycle of the parasite in the infected human.
15. From which plant cannabinoids are obtained? Name any two cannabinoids. Which part
of the body is affected by consuming these substances?
16. In the given flow diagram, the replication of retrovirus in a host is shown. Observe and
answer the following questions:
a. Fill in 1 and 2
b. Why the virus is called retrovirus?
c. Can the infected cell survive while viruses are being replicated and released?
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