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Introduction to C++
Post: #1

Introduction to C++

.ppt  Introduction to C++.PPT (Size: 75.5 KB / Downloads: 176)
Introduction to C++
Noppadon Kamolvilassatian
Department of Computer Engineering
Prince of Songkla University
1. Introduction
C++ improves on many of C’s features.
C++ provides object-oriented programming (OOP).
C++ is a superset to C.
No ANSI standard exists yet (in 1994).
2. C++ Single-Line Comments
In C,
/* This is a single-line comment. */
In C++,
// This is a single-line comment.
3. C++ Stream Input/Output
In C,
printf(“Enter new tag: “); scanf(“%d”, &tag); printf(“The new tag is: %d\n”, tag);
In C++,
cout << “Enter new tag: “; cin >> tag; cout << “The new tag is : “ << tag << ‘\n’;
3.1 An Example
// Simple stream input/output
#include <iostream.h>

cout << "Enter your age: ";
int myAge;
cin >> myAge;

cout << "Enter your friend's age: ";
int friendsAge;
cin >> friendsAge;

if (myAge > friendsAge)
cout << "You are older.\n";
if (myAge < friendsAge)
cout << "You are younger.\n";
cout << "You and your friend are the same age.\n";

return 0;
4. Declarations in C++
In C++, declarations can be placed anywhere (except in the condition of a while, do/while, for or if structure.)
An example
cout << “Enter two integers: “;
int x, y;
cin >> x >> y;
cout << “The sum of “ << x << “ and “ << y
<< “ is “ << x + y << ‘\n’;

Another example

for (int i = 0; i <= 5; i++)
cout << i << ‘\n’;
5. Creating New Data Types in C++
struct Name {
char first[10];
char last[10];
In C,
struct Name stdname;
In C++,
Name stdname;
The same is true for enums and unions
6. Reference Parameters
In C, all function calls are call by value.
Call be reference is simulated using pointers
Reference parameters allows function arguments to be changed without using return or pointers.
6.1 Comparing Call by Value, Call by Reference with Pointers and Call by Reference with References
#include <iostream.h> int sqrByValue(int); void sqrByPointer(int *); void sqrByRef(int &); main() { int x = 2, y = 3, z = 4; cout << "x = " << x << " before sqrByVal\n" << "Value returned by sqrByVal: " << sqrByVal(x) << "\nx = " << x << " after sqrByVal\n\n";

cout << "y = " << y << " before sqrByPointer\n"; sqrByPointer(&y); cout << "y = " << y << " after sqrByPointer\n\n";
cout << "z = " << z << " before sqrByRef\n"; sqrByRef(z); cout << "z = " << z << " after sqrByRef\n"; return 0; }

int sqrByValue(int a) { return a *= a;
// caller's argument not modified } void sqrByPointer(int *bPtr) { *bPtr *= *bPtr;
// caller's argument modified } void sqrByRef(int &cRef) { cRef *= cRef;
// caller's argument modified }
$ g++ -Wall -o square
$ square
x = 2 before sqrByValue
Value returned by sqrByValue: 4
x = 2 after sqrByValue

y = 3 before sqrByPointer
y = 9 after sqrByPointer

z = 4 before sqrByRef
z = 16 after sqrByRef
7. The Const Qualifier
Used to declare “constant variables” (instead of #define)
const float PI = 3.14156;

The const variables must be initialized when declared.
Post: #2
Introduction to C++

.ppt  Introduction to C++.ppt (Size: 339.5 KB / Downloads: 25)


C++ is an object-oriented programming language.
Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at AT&T Bell opeLaboratories, USA in the early 1980’s.
Idea of c++ comes from increment operator ‘++’
C++ is n incremented version of C

Versions of C++

Traditional version
Based upon Bjarne Stroustrup’s original designs
Standard C++
Created by Stroustrup and the ANSI/ISO standardization committee
Standard C++ is a superset of traditional C++

A Simple Program

C++ works by giving (separate) instructions to the computer.
These instructions can be written as functions.
The primary function used in C++ is called main. This means that every C++ program should have the main() function. Because a function is an assignment, in order to perform its job, a function has a body. The body of a function starts with an opening curly bracket "{" and closes with a closing curly bracket "}".

using namespace std;

Namespace is a new concept introduced by the ANSI C++ standards committee.
provide a means of grouping logically related identifiers into corresponding namespaces
std is the namespace where ANSI C++ standard class libraries are defined.
allows you to use cout and endl without the prefix std::. It means that if you do not
include this statement, then cout should be used as std::cout and endl should be used as std::endl.

Int main()

A C++ program is a collection of functions, one of which is the function main.
The main function is the point by where all C++ programs start their execution, independently of its location within the source code.
In C++, main () returns an integer value to the operating system.
the default return type for all function in C++ is int.

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