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Introduction to Vibration Energy Harvesting pdf

Introduction to Vibration Energy Harvesting

.pdf   Vibration Energy.pdf (Size: 3.74 MB / Downloads: 202)

Beyond the batteries

• Moore’s Law: transistors doubling every one or two years!
• Batteries power density and lifespan are limited

Beyond the batteries

•Computing devices are becoming ubiquitous and pervasive!
•Power requirements must be scaled down, for size of <1cm3 the power consumption goal is below 100 μW
•Problem: batteries must be recharged/replaced and eventually disposed

WSNs have vast applications

•Environmental Monitoring
–Habitat Monitoring (light, temperature, humidity)
–Integrated Biology
•Structural Monitoring
•Interactive and Control
–RFID, Real Time Locator, TAGS
–Building, Automation
–Transport Tracking, Cars sensors
–Intrusion Detection
–Interactive museum exhibits
•Medical remote sensing
–Emergency medical response
–Monitoring, pacemaker, defibrillators
•Military applications and Aerospace

Benefits of Energy Harvesting

•Long lasting operability
•No chemical disposal
•Cost saving
•Maintenance free
•No charging points
•Inaccessible sites operability
•Applications otherwise impossible

Market potential

Market size of WSN’s
oThe overall wireless sensors market is estimated to grow to $4 billions by 2020 (Frost & Sullivan, 2006)
oThe worldwide ULP market reached over 200 million units by 2010.
oTemperature monitoring and vibration spectra of sensitive plant equipment is growing recently around $22m (ARC Advisory Group, 2007).
oVibration and velocity sensors and transmitters market is growing from $17.4m in 2006 to $112.5m in 2012 at a compound annual growth rate of 34.4%.

To minimize the need for external power supply and the maintenance of electrical devices such as wireless sensor networks, the vibration-based energy collection technique has been a dynamic field of study of interest in recent years. An important limitation of existing energy harvesting techniques is that the output power output is seriously subject to the resonant frequencies of ambient vibrations, which are usually random and broadband. To solve this problem, researchers have focused on developing efficient energy harvesters by adopting new materials and optimizing collection devices. In particular, among these approaches, different types of energy harvesters have been designed with consideration for non-linear characteristics, so that frequency bandwidth can be expanded for efficient energy harvesting of power harvesters. This article reviews three important and important mechanisms of conversion of vibration to electricity, its theory or methods of design and potential applications in the literature. As one of the important factors for estimating output power output, we also summarize the energy conversion efficiency of different conversion mechanisms.

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