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investigatory project on typhoid
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Investigatory file of bio on topic typhoid
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#2
Typhoid fever also known simply as typhoid. It is a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella typhi that causes symptoms. Symptoms can vary from mild to severe and usually begin six to thirty days after exposure. There is often a gradual onset of high fever for several days. Weakness, abdominal pain, constipation and headaches also commonly occur. Diarrhea is uncommon and vomiting is usually not serious. Some people develop a rash on the skin with pink spots. In severe cases, there may be confusion. Without treatment, the symptoms may last for weeks or months. Other people can carry the bacteria without being affected; however, they can still transmit the disease to others. Typhoid fever is a type of enteric fever along with paratyphoid fever.

The cause is the bacterium Salmonella typhi, also known as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, which grows in the intestines and blood. Typhoid is spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Risk factors include poor sanitation and poor hygiene. Those who travel to the developing world are also at risk and only humans can be infected. The diagnosis is by culturing the bacteria or detecting the bacteria's DNA in the blood, feces or bone marrow. Growing the bacteria can be difficult. The bone marrow test is the most accurate. The symptoms are similar to those of many other infectious diseases. Typhus is a different disease.

A vaccine against typhoid fever can prevent between 30% and 70% of cases during the first two years. The vaccine can have some effect for up to seven years. It is recommended for people at high risk or people traveling to areas where the disease is common. Other efforts to prevent the disease include providing clean water, better sanitation and better hand washing. Until it has been confirmed that an individual's infection has been eliminated, the individual should not prepare food for others. The treatment of the disease is with antibiotics such as azithromycin, fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins. Resistance to these antibiotics has been developing, which has made it difficult to treat the disease.

In 2015 there were 12.5 million new cases worldwide. The disease is more common in India. Children are the most commonly affected. Disease rates decreased in the developed world in the 1940s as a result of improved sanitation and the use of antibiotics to treat the disease. Each year in the United States about 400 cases are reported and it is estimated that the disease occurs in approximately 6,000 people. In 2015, it resulted in 149,000 deaths worldwide, compared to 181,000 in 1990 (around 0.3% of the world total). The risk of death can be as high as 20% without treatment. With treatment it is between 1 and 4%. The name typhoid means "similar to typhus" because of the similarity in symptoms.
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