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Mini project report on SHADOW ALARM
Post: #1


.doc  SHADOW ALARM.doc (Size: 1.41 MB / Downloads: 291)


Our mini-project is to design and check the functionality of ‘SHADOW ALARM’ circuit. Shadow Alarm is opto-sensitive circuit that sounds an alarm whenever a shadow falls on it .Now a days it is widely used in aspects of security systems, where security is our main concern .So it can be used at night by shopkeepers to protect the valuables in their showrooms. It can also be used to provide security at warehouses (go-downs) where storage and protection of various types of goods is main concern, and works good for home-security too. A dim lighting in the room is necessary to detect the moving shadow. Unlike opto-interruption alarms based on light-dependent resistors (LDRs), it does not require an aligned light beam to illuminate the photo-sensor.



This opto-sensitive circuit sounds an alarm whenever a shadow falls on it. So it can be used at night by shopkeepers to protect the valuables in their showrooms. A dim light in the room is necessary to detect the moving shadow. Unlike opto interruption alarms based on light-dependent resistors (LDRs), it does not require an aligned light beam to illuminate the photo-sensor.
The circuit is powered by a 9V PP3 battery and uses the most sensitive photo-sensor L14F1 to detect shadows. It is portable and can be used at any place that is to be monitored. Op-amp μA741 (IC1) is used as a voltage comparator. Its inverting input is biased by the voltage obtained from the junction of 100k resistor R1 and the collector of phototransistor T1. The non-inverting input of IC1 gets a controlled voltage from potential divider R2 and VR1. In the presence of ambient light, the phototransistor conducts and the inverting input (pin 2) of IC1 gets a lower voltage than its non-inverting input (pin 3). This makes the output of IC1 high, which is indicated by the glowing of LED1. When a shadow falls on the photo sensor, the output of IC1 goes low. This low pulse triggers the monostable (IC2) designed for a delay of 51 seconds using R6 and C3. The output of IC2 is used to light up LED2 and activate the alarm. Slide switch S2 is used to select either the buzzer or siren. When it is towards left the buzzer beeps, and when it is towards right IC UM66 (IC3) activates to give a loud alarm simulating a police siren. Resistor R8 and zener diode ZD1 provide 3.1V DC to IC UM66.


The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an oscillator, and as a flip-flop element .It is easy to use, available at low price and has high stability.


The Operational Amplifier is probably the most versatile Integrated Circuit available. It is very cheap especially keeping in mind the fact that it contains several hundred components. The most common Op-Amp is the 741 and it is used in many circuits.
The OP AMP is a ‘Linear Amplifier’ with an amazing variety of uses. Its main purpose is to amplify (increase) a weak signal - a little like a Darlington Pair. The OP-AMP has two inputs, INVERTING ( - ) and NON-INVERTING (+), and one output at pin 6.
1. An inverting amplifier. Leg two is the input and the output is always reversed. In an inverting amplifier the voltage enters the 741 chip through leg two and comes out of the 741 chip at leg six. If the polarity is positive going into the chip, it negative by the time it comes out through leg six. The polarity has been ‘inverted’
2. A non-inverting amplifier. Leg three is the input and the output is not reversed. In a non-inverting amplifier the voltage enters the 741 chip through leg three and leaves the 741 chip through leg six. This time if it is positive going into the 741 then it is still positive coming out. Polarity remains the same.


Here is a simple melody generator circuit you can make using an IC. The UM66 series are CMOS IC’s designed for using in calling bell, phone and toys. It has a built in ROM programmed for playing music. The device has very low power consumption. Thanks for the CMOS technology. The melody will be available at pin3 of UM66 and here it is amplified by using Q1 to drive the speaker. Resistor R1 limits the base current of Q1 within the safe values. Capacitor C1 is meant for noise suppression.



Resistors ®, are the most commonly used of all electronic components, to the point where they are almost taken for granted. They are "Passive Devices", that is they contain no source of power or amplification but only attenuate or reduce the voltage signal passing through them. When used in DC circuits the voltage drop produced is measured across their terminals as the circuit current flows through them while in AC circuits the voltage and current are both in-phase producing 0o phase shift.
In all Electrical and Electronic circuit diagrams and schematics, the most commonly used resistor symbol is that of a "zig-zag" type line with the value of its resistance given in Ohms, Ω.


A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. It is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be much more than the controlling (input) power, the transistor provides amplification of a signal. Some transistors are packaged individually but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.


The circuit has found to have greater applications in security reliable and les expensive and is guaranteed o perform the best of the duration of their life time.
This project is accessible to anyone with an average expense
Post: #2

dear friends listen hear shadow alarm using embedded system


Post: #3
Post: #4
To get full information or details of SHADOW ALARM please have a look on the pages

if you again feel trouble on SHADOW ALARM please reply in that page and ask specific fields in SHADOW ALARM
Post: #5
Please i am unable to download any document from this website. I cant login due to problems with my account. please help me download and send to my email - doncee87[at] or emmajnr87[at]
Post: #6
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Post: #7
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