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NanoTechnology (Download Full Seminar Report)
Post: #46
NanoTechnology


.doc  Nano_Technology sigarayakonda.doc (Size: 73 KB / Downloads: 56)


ABSTRACT

Imaging curing cancer by drinking a medicine stirred into your favorite fruit juice. A supercomputer no bigger than human cells. A super craft no larger or more expensive than the family car. These are just a few promises of nanotechnology. The future of technology at times becomes easier to predict. Computers will compute faster, materials will become stronger and medicine will cure more diseases. The technology that works at the nanometer scale of molecules and atoms will be a large part of this future, enabling great improvements in all the fields of human presence. We are in for some major changes. Nanotechnology promises to make us healthy and wealthy. And it will be able to do so without consuming natural resources or spewing pollution into the environment. But what does nanotechnology mean? Think all the way down to one-billionth of a meters-a scale at which hydrogen and carbon atoms appear as large as baseballs. Now imagine picking up those atoms and building a machine. In other words, nanotechnology is about building things atom-by-atom, molecule-by-molecule. Nanotechnology is much discussed these days as an emerging frontier-a realm in which machines operate at scales of billionths of a metre. It is actually a multitude of rapidly emerging technologies, based upon the scaling down of existing technologies to the next level of precision and miniaturization. The original vision for nanotechnology is sometimes termed ‘molecular manufacturing’ or ‘molecular manufacturing-based nanotechnology’. It is the basis for the original excitement about the field, and in the future, it could lead to the building of full-scale machine and mechanisms with nanoscale dimensions. Simply put, nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices and systems through control of matter on the nanometer scale, and the exploitation of novel properties and phenomena developed at that scale.

OPTIMISTS SAY? : -
Active researchers in the field of nanotechnology are enthusiastic about its potential applications in such fields as energy, medicine, electronics, computing, security and materials. This enthusiasm is, however, primarily based on laboratory discoveries, some of which are already in the process of being translated into advantageous products.
Others are more cautious about the potential of nanotechnology, nothing that certain related technologies over-promoted and, in fact, failed to do most of the things that proponents of nanotechnology said it would do. It is indeed a fact that nanotechnology, in its infancy presently, has the potential to profoundly change the economy and to improve our standard of living, in a manner not unlike the impact made by advances over the past few decades, say, by Information Technology (IT).

While commercial products are starting to come to the market, some of the major applications are yet to come out in a big way. The goal of nanotechnology is to build tiny devices called nanomachines. To build things on such a small scale, one has to be able to manipulate atoms individually. The challenge of nanotechnology is to place atoms precisely where you wish on a structure. Research in chemistry, molecular biology and scanning probe microscopy is laying the foundations for molecular machine systems. Although we are yet to build a nanomachine, molecular machines are working in our body right now. For example, consider a protein in the human body. You could think of it as a machine that moves molecules. This is basically an oxygen pump used red blood cells. The heat of other molecules around it powers it. A channel opens periodically to the centre of the protein, allowing oxygen to pass from the outside and bind with iron for transport throughout the body. Scientists can now construct natural proteins even synthesize new ones with novel properties never seen in this nature. With enough understanding, we may be able to turn proteins into microscopic to do the jobs we want.

ADVANTAGES: -

What if we could inexpensively make things with every atom in the right place? From nanotechnology we’ll be able to snap together the fundamental building blocks of nature easily, inexpensively and in most of the ways permitted by the laws of physics. This is essential to continue the revolution in computer hardware right down to the molecular gates and wires-something that today’s lithographic methods, which are used to make computer chips, could never achieve. Additionally, we could inexpensively make very stronger, lighter, cleaner and more precise materials according to our convenience.
This may include shatterproof diamond in precisely the shapes we want and over fifty times lighter than steel of the same strength. We could make surgical instruments of such precision and deftness that they could operate on the cells and even molecules from which we are made-something well beyond today’s medical technology.
The list goes on and on-almost any manufactured product could be vastly improved, often by orders of magnitude. Also the ‘bottom-up’ manufacturing approach-making materials and products from the bottom-up that is, building them up from atoms and molecules-would require less material and create less pollution.

THE MOLECULAR ASEMBLER:-

The goal of early nanotechnology was to produce the first Nano-size robotic arm capable of manipulating atoms and molecules either into a useful product or copies of itself. One nano-assembler working atom by atom would be rather slow because most desirable products are made of trillions and trillions of atoms. However, such an assembler robot arm is designed to make copies of it and those copies are capable of making further copies. This would soon result in a situation where objects would be assembled quickly by trillions of such nano supercomputer-controlled assemblers working in parallel. But why focus on manufacturing from the molecular dimensions? This is because manufacturing is basically a method for arranging atoms. Most methods arrange atoms crudely even the finest commercial microchips are grossly irregular at the atomic scale, and much of today’s nanotechnology faces the same challenge. The molecular assembler is the answer to this challenge. Once perfected, it will position the molecules, bringing them together to the specific location and at desired time. By holding and positioning molecules in this way, the molecular assemblers will control with precision how the molecules react, building up complex structures that finally lead to the desired product.
With its ability to make a wide range of structures with atomic precision, molecular manufacturing will greatly expand the limits of technological possibility. It will make possible micron-scale computer CPUs efficient enough (with operating power of approximately 100 nanowatts) to let air-cooled desktop systems contain a billion processors. As computing becomes more central to the socio-economic mechanisms of society, secure computing is also growing.

INEXPENSIVE: -
Molecular manufacturing will be inexpensive because it uses small amounts of material and energy, and its costs of capital, land and labour will be low. Capital will be inexpensive because molecular manufacturing systems can be quickly used to build additional molecular manufacturing systems. Land and labour will add little to the costs because little of either will be needed. Setting aside costs external to manufacturing, the intrinsic costs of products made by molecular manufacturing would typically be little more than the cost of the required raw materials and energy.


ENERGY-EFFICIENT: -
Molecular manufacturing can be energy-efficient because the key feature of its basic mechanisms – guiding the motion of molecules using mechanical systems – imposes no great energy cost. All molecular processes, whether in biological systems or chemical processing plants, move molecules to bring molecules together in new patterns, and molecular machine systems can move molecules more efficiently than systems that subject them to fluid drag. Molecular manufacturing can be resource – efficient as well, because its products will typically contain far less material than would the products of conventional technologies. Resource – efficiency, in turn, will contribute to energy – efficiency.
Post: #47
NANO TECHNOLOGY


.doc  NANO TECHNOLOGY.doc (Size: 500.5 KB / Downloads: 60)

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnology is a field of science and engineering whose ultimate aim is to build robots smaller than living cells with the ability to arrange individual atoms into any physically possible pattern. The science of developing materials at the atomic and molecular level in order to imbue them with special electrical and chemical properties. The early genesis of the concept of nanomedicine sprang from the visionary idea that tiny nanorobots and related machines could be designed, manufactured, and introduced into the human body to perform cellular repairs at the molecular level. Nanomedicine today has branched out in hundreds of different directions.

INTRODUCTION

A nanorobot is a nanotechnological robot also called a nanite, which is a mechanical or electromechanical device whose dimensions are measured in nanometres (millionths of a millimeter).
Nanorobots are nanodevices that will be used for the purpose of maintaining and protecting the human body against pathogens. They will have a diameter of about 0.5 to 3 microns and will be constructed out of parts with dimensions in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. Instead, medical nanorobots may be manufactured in carefully controlled nanofactories in which nanoscale machines are solidly integrated .

NANO-ROBOTS COMMUNICATION

The requirements of a nanorobot that would be inserted in a human body is that it must be mobile and have powerful navigation system, due to its functions in the human bloodstream and in the tissues. It may have a wide range of sensors to navigate through human body and to identify molecules and cells fast. It may have powerful transport subsystem to deliver molecules .It should also have wide range of computer-guided nano-manipulators. It may be manufactured from flawless diamonded due to bio-capability with human body. It may have broadcasting system which can connect to other nanorobots. Finally, it may have long telescopic manipulators to hold cells or surfaces.


FIELDS OF APPLICATION


Medical nanodevices could augment the immune system by finding and disabling unwanted bacteria and viruses. When an invader is identified, it can be punctured, letting its contents spill out and ending its effectiveness. If the contents were known to be hazardous by themselves, then the immune machine could hold on to it long enough to dismantle it more completely. Devices working in the bloodstream could nibble away at arteriosclerotic deposits, widening the affected blood vessels. Cell herding devices could restore artery walls and artery linings to health, by ensuring that the right cells and supporting structures are in the right places. This would prevent most heart attacks.

FUTURE NANOROBOTICS

In the longer term, perhaps 10 to 20 years from today, the earliest molecular machine systems and nanorobots may join the medical armamentarium, finally giving physicians the most potent tools imaginable to conquer human disease, ill health, and aging. Organic building materials.

CONCLUSIONS

Nanorobots monitoring nutrient concentrations in a three dimensional workspace is a possible application of nanorobots in medicine, among other biomedical problems. One interesting nanorobot application is to assist inflammatory cells leaving blood vessels to repair injured tissues... Nanorobots equipped with nanosensors could be developed to detect glucose demand in diabetes patients. Nanorobots could also be applied in chemotherapy to combat cancer through superior chemical dosage administration and a similar approach could be taken to enable nanorobots to deliver anti-HIVdrugs. Such drug-delivery nanorobots have been termed "pharmacytes”.
Post: #48
NANO TECHNOLOGY


.doc  NANO TECHNOLOGY2 DOC.doc (Size: 89 KB / Downloads: 48)

Abstract

This paper objectives in Nano Technology are the design, modeling, and fabrication ofmolecular machines, molecular devices and soft ware issues to design that kind of devices and machines. While the ultimate objective must clearly be economical fabrication, present capabilities preclude the manufacture of any but the most basic molecular structures. The design and modeling of molecular machines is, however, quite feasible with present technology. More to the point, such modeling is a cheap and easy way to explore the truly wide range of molecular machines that are possible, allowing the rapid evaluation and elimination of obvious dead ends and the retention and more intensive analysis of more promising designs. It is clear that the right computational support will substantially reduce the development time. With appropriate molecular computer aided design software, molecular modeling software and related tools.

Introduction

It is becoming increasingly accepted that we will, eventually, develop the ability to economically fabricate a truly wide range of structures with atomic precision. This will be of major economic value. Most obviously a molecular manufacturing capability will be a prerequisite to the construction of molecular logic devices. The continuation of present trends in computer hardware depends on the ability to fabricate ever smaller and ever more precise logic devices at ever decreasing costs. The limit of this trend is the ability to fabricate molecular logic devices and to connect them in complex patterns at the molecular level. The manufacturing technology needed will, almost of necessity, be able to economically manufacture large structures (computers) with atomic precision (molecular logic elements). This capability will also permit the economical manufacture of materials with properties that border on the limits imposed by natural law. The strength of materials, in particular, will approach or even exceed that of diamond. Given the broad range of manufactured products that devote substantial mass to load-bearing members, such a development by itself will have a significant impact. A broad range of other manufactured products will also benefit from a manufacturing process that offers atomic precision at low cost.Given the promise of such remarkably high payoffs it is natural to ask exactly what such systems will look like, exactly how they will work, and exactly how we will go about building them.

NANO TECHONOLOGY IN CHIP MAKING

Nanotech method for making microchip components which it says should enable electronic devices to continue to get smaller and faster. Current techniques use light to help etch tiny circuitry on a chip, but IBM is now using molecules that assemble themselves into even smaller patterns. Because the technology is compatible with existing manufacturing tools, it should be inexpensive to introduce. IBM says it hopes to pilot the nanotech process in about three to five years. The company's researchers used the novel approach to make part of a device that acts as a type of flash memory, which retains recent information when an electronic gadget is turned off. Such memory is commonly found in handheld computers, mobile phones and digital cameras. At the moment, for example, microchip circuitry is put on silicon wafers using a lithographic process in which the image of the design of how the wires are to be laid out is first projected on to the prepared wafers. With the new technique, it is the polymer patterns that provide the initial stencil - in this instance, for the crystalline array used to make the flash memory.

NANO TECHNOLOGY IN MEDICINE

It will deal with the problems involved in designing and building a micro-scale robot that can be introduced into the body to perform various medical activities. The preliminary design is intended for the following specific applications:
Tumors. We must be able to treat tumors; that is to say, cells grouped in a clumped mass. The specified goal is to be able to destroy tumorous tissue in such a way as to minimize the risk of causing or allowing a recurrence of the growth in the body.
Arteriosclerosis. This is caused by fatty deposits on the walls of arteries. The device should be able to remove these deposits from the artery walls. This will allow for both improving the flexibility of the walls of the arteries and improving the blood flow through them
Blood clots. The cause damage when they travel to the bloodstream to a point where they can block the flow of blood to a vital area of the body. This can result in damage to vital organs in very short order. By using a microrobot in the body to break up such clots into smaller pieces.
Post: #49
NanoTechnology



.docx  NANOTECHNOLOGY.docx (Size: 368.32 KB / Downloads: 67)
INTRODUCTION

In a world of information, digital technologies have made copying fast, cheap, and perfect, quite, independent of cost or complexity of the content. What if the same were to happen in the world of matter? The production cost of a ton of tetra byte RAM chips would be about the same as the production cost of steel. Design costs matter, production costs would not matter.
Hard to imagine? Not for the new breed of scientist who says that the 21st century could see all these science fiction dreams come true that is because of molecular nanotechnology, a hybrid of chemistry and engineering that would let us manufacture anything with atomic precision. Nanotechnology at times becomes easier to predict.
Nanotechnology can best be considered as a 'catch-all' description of activities at the level of atoms and molecules that have applications in the real world.
Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices and systems through control of matter on the nanometer length scale (1-100 nanometers), and exploitation of novel phenomena and properties (physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical...) at that length scale. For comparison, 10 nanometers is 1000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. A scientific and technical revolution has just begun based upon the ability to systematically organize and manipulate matter at nanoscale.
The term sometimes applies to any microscopic technology. Due to the small size at which nanotechnology operates, physical phenomena not observed at the macroscopic scale dominate. These nanoscale phenomena include quantum size effects and short range forces such as vander waals forces. Furthermore the vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume promotes surface phenomena. Since the progress of computers is growing expotentially it is believed that it will develop into nanotechnology in the near future. Just as computers break down data into its most basic form 1’s and 0’s—
nanotechnology deals with matter in its most elemental form: atoms and molecules.


With a computer, once data is broken down and organized into combinations of 1s and 0s, it can be easily reproduced and distributed. With matter, the basic building blocks are atoms and the combinations of atoms that make up molecules. Nanotechnology lets you manipulate those atoms and molecules, making it possible to manufacture, replicate, and distribute any substance known to humans as easily and cheaply as you can replicate data on a computer.In fiction and media, "nanotechnology" often refers to hypothetical molecular nanotechnology (also known as "MNT").

HISTORY

The first mention of nanotechnology (not yet using that name) occurred in a talk given by Richard Feynman in 1959, entitled “There’s plenty of Room at the Bottom”. Feynman suggested a means to develop the ability to manipulate atoms and molecules "directly", by developing a set of one-tenth-scale machine tools analogous to those found in any machine shop. As the sizes get smaller, we would have to redesign some tools because the relative strength of various forces would change. Gravity would become less important, surface tension would become more important, Van der Waals attraction would become important, etc. Feynman mentioned these scaling issues during his talk. Nobody has yet effectively refuted the feasibility of his proposal.

HOW WILL NANO TECHNOLOGY CHANGE THE WORLD
FIRST BRICKS THEN THE BUILDING


Before nanotechnology can become anything other than a very impressive computer simulation, nanotechnologists are inventing an assembler, few-atoms-large nanomachines that can custom-build matter.
Engineers at Cornell and Stanford, as well as at Zyvex (the self- described "first molecular nanotechnology development company") are working to create such assemblers right now.


The first products will most likely be superstrong nanoscale building materials, such as the Buckytubes. Fullerenes, or buckminsterfullerenes in full, are molecules composed entirely of carbon, taking the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, or ring. They are sometimes called buckyballs or buckytubes, depending on the shape.
Bucky tubes are chicken-wire-shaped tubes made from geodesic dome-shaped carbon molecules. These tubes are essentially nanometer-sized graphite fibers, and their strength is 100 to 150 times that of steel at less than one-fourth the weight. Fullerenes are similar in structure to graphite, which is composed of a sheet of linked hexagonal rings, but they contain pentagonal (or sometimes heptagonal) rings that prevent the sheet from being planar. Cylindrical fullerenes are often called nanotubes. The smallest fullerene in which no two pentagons share an edge (which is destabilizing — see pentalne) is C60, and as such it is also the most common. A common method used to produce fullerenes is to send a large current between two nearby graphite electrodes in an inert atmosphere. The resulting carbon plasma arc between the electrodes cools into sooty residue from which many fullerenes can be isolated.
The key to manufacturing with assemblers on a large scale is self-replication. One nano-sized robot making wood one nano-sized piece at a time would be painfully slow. But if these assemblers could replicate themselves, we could have trillions of assemblers all manufacturing in unison. Then there would be no limit to the kinds of things we could create. "Not only will our manufacturing process be transformed, but our concept of labor. Consumer goods will become plentiful, inexpensive, smart, and durable".


.CARBON NANOTUBE:

An electronic device known as a diode can be formed by joining two nanoscale carbon tubes with different electronic properties.
Carbon nanotubes are tubular carbon molecules with properties that make them potentially useful in extremely small scale electronic and mechanical applications. They exhibit unusual strength and unique electrical properties, and are extremely efficient conductors of heat.
A nanotube has a structure similar to a fullerene, but where a fullerene's carbon atoms form a sphere, a nanotube is cylindrical and each end is typically capped with half a fullerene molecule. Their name derives from their size; nanotubes are on the order of only a few nonometers wide (on the order of one ten-thousandth the width of a human hair), and their length can be millions of times greater than their width.
Nanotubes are composed entirely of sp2 bonds, similar to graphite. Stronger than the sp3 bonds found in diamond, this bonding structure provides them with their unique strength. Nanotubes naturally align themselves into "ropes" held together by Van der Waals force . Under high pressure, nanotubes can merge together, trading some sp2 bonds for sp3 bonds, giving great possibility for producing strong, unlimited-length wires through high-pressure nanotube linking.


.NANOWIRE:

A"nanowire" is a wire of dimensions of the order of a nanometer (10 - 9 meters). The nanowires could be used, in a near feature, as components of nanotechnology to create electrical circuits out of compounds that are capable of being formed into extremely small circuits. Nanowires are not observed spontaneously in nature and must be produced in a laboratory. Nanowires can be either suspended or deposited.

USE OF NANOWIRES:
To create active electronic elements, the first key step was to chemically dope a semiconductor nanowire. This has already been done to individual nanowires to create p-type and n-type semicondcutors.
Post: #50
NanoTechnology



.pdf  49627491-Nano-Technology.pdf (Size: 386.22 KB / Downloads: 53)

Introduction:
Imagine a technology so powerful that it
will allow such feats as desktop
manufacturing, cellular repair, artificial
intelligence, inexpensive space travel,
clean and abundant energy and
environmental restoration; a technology
so portable that every one can reap


What is nanotechnology?

Nanotechnology is molecular
manufacturing or, more simply building things
one atom or molecule at a time with
programmed nanoscopic robot arms. A
nanometer is one billionth of a meter (3 to 4
atoms wide). Utilizing the well-understood
chemical properties of atoms and molecules
(how they stick together) a nanotechnology
proposes the construction of novel molecular
devices possessing extraordinary properties.
The trick is to manipulate atoms individually
and place them exactly where needed to
produce the desired structure.


Concepts of nano technolgy:

There are two concepts commonly
associated with nanotechnology:
· Positional Assembly
· Self-Replication
Clearly, we would be happy with any
method that simultaneously achieved the
following three objectives. However, this
seems difficult without using some form of
positional assembly (to get the right
molecular parts in the right places) and some
form of self-replication (to keep the costs
down).
1. Get essentially every atom in the right
place.
2. Make almost any structure consistent with
the laws of physics and chemistry that we
can specify in atomic detail.
3. Have manufacturing costs not greatly
exceeding the cost of the required raw
materials and energy.


Nano mechanical computational systems:

The positioning systems in molecular
assemblers need devices to direct their
programmed movements and ways to store
these programs. Computers and control
systems similar to those already devised for
macroscale robotic arms can be
implemented at the molecular level. At the
current rate of development, molecular
electronic computers that would be used for
this purpose will likely be commercialized
well before the robot arms.


Nanotechnology, a break through in all fields:

Nanotechnology has been successful in
almost all the fields irrespective of its kind and
with the help of this technology it is possible
to perform any type of operations starting from
manipulating the molecules for separating
impurities to the stage where it is the easy
method for the production of power.
Post: #51
to get information about the topic "nanotechnology in agriculture" full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

https://seminarsprojects.net/Thread-nano...esentation

https://seminarsprojects.net/Thread-nano...ort?page=8

https://seminarsprojects.net/Thread-nano...ull-report

https://seminarsprojects.net/Thread-nano...ion--11388
Post: #52
Nanotechnology


.ppt  Nanotechnology.ppt (Size: 2.69 MB / Downloads: 88)
What Is Nanotechnology?

.Research and technology development aimed to
understand and control matter at dimensions of
approximately 1 - 100 nanometer – the nanoscale ?
.Ability to understand, create, and use structures, devices
and systems that have fundamentally new properties and
functions because of their nanoscale structure ?
.Ability to image, measure, model, and manipulate matter on
the nanoscale to exploit those properties and functions ?
.Ability to integrate those properties and functions into
systems spanning from nano- to macro-scopic scales ?

Tools

Nanotechnology tools include microscopy techniques and equipment that permit visualization and manipulation of items at the nanoscale such as cells, bacteria, and viruses, and to detect single molecules to better understand the nature of science. The range of tools includes the atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning tunneling microscope (STM), molecular modeling software and various production technologies.

Top-down approach

1. The top-down approach is analogous to making a stone statue. You take a bulk piece of material and modify it, by carving or cutting in the case of stone, until you have made the shape you want. The process involves material wastage and is limited by the resolution of the tools you can use, restricting the smallest sizes of the structures made by these techniques. Examples of this kind of approach include the various types of lithographic techniques (such as photo-, ion beam-, electron- or X-ray-lithography) cutting, etching and grinding.

Bottom-up

The second approach is known as the bottom-up approach. This can be thought of as the same approach one would take to build a house: one takes lots of building blocks and puts them together to produce the final bigger structure. There is less wastage with this technique, and strong covalent bonds will hold the constituent parts together.
A good example of this kind of approach is found in nature; all cells use enzymes to produce DNA by taking the component molecules and binding them together to make the final structure. Chemical synthesis, self-assembly, and molecular fabrication are all examples of bottom-up techniques.
Post: #53
NanoTechnology



.ppt  Nanotechnology.ppt (Size: 1.08 MB / Downloads: 74)

What is nanotechnology



A BASIC DEFINITION:-nanotechnology is a engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This cover both current work & concepts that are more advanced.
In its original sense nanotechnology refer to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques & tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products

Meaning of nanotechnology


When K. Eric Drexler (right) popularized the word'nanotechnology'in the 1980's, he was talking about building machines on the scale of molecules, a few nanometerswide—motors, robot arms, and even whole computers, far smaller than a cell. Drexler spent the next ten years describing and analyzing these incredible devices, and responding to accusations of science fiction. Meanwhile, mundane technology was developing the ability to build simple structures on a molecular scale. As nanotechnology became an accepted concept, the meaning of the word shifted to encompass the simpler kinds of nanometer-scale technology. The U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative was created to fund this kind of nanotech: their definition includes anything smaller than 100 nanometers with novel properties.
Post: #54
NanoTechnology



.doc  4.NANO TECHNOLOGY.doc (Size: 1.59 MB / Downloads: 57)

INTRODUCTION

Nano is a Greek prefix that defines the smallest (1000 times smaller then micrometer) natural structures. It is building with indent &design, molecule by molecule, these two things:
Incredibly advanced extremely capable nanoscale machines & computers.
Ordinary size objects, using other incredibly small machines called assemblers. Nanotechnology can be created at nanoscale & to perform new & improved functions.
It is going to be responsible for massive changes in the way we live, the way interact with one another & our environment.

SPECIALIZED NANOTECHNOLOGY FACILITIES & CAPABILITIES

Nanotechnology is both the means to an end-an enables of accomplishments in truly
diverse mix of science & engineering field. It is a revolution in industry that deliver wave
after wave of innovative products and services.
a. Molecular measuring machine (m^3)
Nist conceived two –dimensional co- ordinate measuring machine can measure with
nanometer level with accuracy, locations, distance and features sizes over a 50mm by
50mm area, an enormous expense in the nanotechnology world .It uses a high – precision
inferometer.


b. Pulsed inductive Micro wave Magnetometer (PIMM)

Using PIMM, nanostuctured materials are used to record data in extremely small bits (at sizes below 160 square nm per bit), now can assess quickly the composition and growth conditions that promote high speed response, permitting the development of future magnetic memories that read and write data at sustained speeds in excess of 1 billions bits per second.

c. Carbon Wires expand Nano toolkit

Scientists looking for building blocks to form electronics & machines that are not much bigger than molecules have garned a new tool, Japan have found a way to make carbon nanowires that measure only a few carbon atoms across. CNW could eventually be used in ultra-stronger fibers, as friction-free bearings &in space shuttle nose –cones. Carbon nanotubes are very strongly having useful electrical properties, because they are solid, and they should be even stronger than nanotubes. They could be used in nanoelectronics as microscopic machine parts, and in materials constructed molecules by molecule.
d.Nanotubes boost storage: Multiwalled carbon nanotubes to make denser, more efficient data Storage devices. It was possible to use multiwalled carbonnanotubes tips rather then silicon to write data on to a polymer film. Binary data is written by heating the polymer to make indentation that represent 1s; blank space represent 0s.nanotubes tips can be used to write more than 250 gigabytes.




NANOTECHNOLOGY AT NASA


Advanced miniaturization is a key thrust area to enable new science and exploration missions
Ultra small sensors, power sources, communication, navigation, and propulsion systems with very low mass, volume and power consumption are needed
Revolutions in electronics and computing will allow reconfigurable, autonomous, "thinking" spacecraft
Nanotechnology presents a whole new spectrum of opportunities to build device components and systems for entirely new space architectures
Networks of ultra small probes on planetary surfaces
Micro-rovers that drive, hop, fly, and burrow
Collection of micro spacecraft making a variety of measurements


The Nanorover Technology Task is a technology development effort to create very small (10-100s of grams) but scientifically capable robotic vehicles for planetary exploration, which can easily fit within the mass and/or volume constraints of future missions to asteroids, comets, and Mars. The task objective is twofold:
• to create a useful rover system using current-generation technology including mobility, computation, power, and communications within a mass of a few hundred grams, and
• to advance selected technologies which offer breakthroughs in size reduction, mobility, or science return to enable complete rovers to be built with a mass well under 100 grams.

Key Technology Elements

• Miniaturization of all rover systems including science payload
• Computer/electronics design for operation without thermal enclosure and control to survive ambient temperature ranges of -125C to +125C
• Miniature actuator usage and control in thermal/vacuum environments
• Mobility and navigation in low-gravity (1/100,000 of Earth) environments
• Sensing and autonomous control of rover operations

NANOELECTROMECHANICALSYSTEM:

NEMS converts mechanical energy in to electrical or optical signals and vice versa. The principle components are mechanical elements and transducers. Mechanical elements can be used to sense static or time-varying forces. NEMS dissipate very little energy. NEMS extremely sensitive to external damping Mechanisms, for building much type of sensors. It is used for wide range of sensing applications. Small size of NEMS also implies that have a highly localized spatial response. Driving a NEMS at Pico watt scale could cause SNR up to 10^6.
Post: #55

Nanotechnology


.docx  Nanotechnology.docx (Size: 17.17 KB / Downloads: 55)
Albert Einstein first proved that each molecule measures about a nanometer (a billion of a meter) in diameter. And in 1959, it was Richard P. Feynman who predicted a technological world composed of self-replicating molecules whose purpose would be the production of nano-sized objects.

Introduction

The development and use of devices that have a size of only a few nanometres. Research has been carried out into very small components, which depend on electronic effects and may involve movement of a countable number of electrons in their action. Such devices would act faster than larger components. Considerable interest has been shown in the production of structures on a molecular level by suitable sequences of chemical reactions. It is also possible to manipulate individual atoms on surfaces using a variant of the atomic force microscope.
Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices and systems through control of matter on the nanometer length scale (1-100 nanometers), and exploitation of novel phenomena and properties (physical, chemical, biological) at that length scale. For comparison, 10 nanometers is 1000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. A scientific and technical revolution has just begun based upon the ability to systematically organize and manipulate matter at nanoscale. Payoff is anticipated within the next 10-15 years.
A push is well underway to invent devices that manufacture at almost no cost, by treating atoms discretely, like computers treat bits of information. This would allow automatic construction of consumer goods without traditional labor, like a Xerox machine produces unlimited copies without a human retyping the original information.
Working at the resolution limit of matter, it will enable the ultimate in miniaturization and performance. By starting with cheap, abundant components--molecules--and processing them with small, high-frequency, high-productivity machines, it will make products inexpensive.
Post: #56
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Post: #57
NANOTECHNOLOGY


.docx  NANOTECHNOLOGY.docx (Size: 14.84 KB / Downloads: 43)
Introduction

Despite unprecedented government funding and public interest in nanotechnology, few can accurately define the scope, range or potential applications of this technology. One of the most pressing issues facing nanoscientists and technologists today is that of communicating with the non-scientific community. As a result of decades of speculation, a number of myths have grown up around the field, making it difficult for the general public to understand what this technology actually is.

What is nanotechnology?

Take a random selection of scientists, engineers, investors and the general public and ask them what nanotechnology is and you will receive a range of replies as broad as nanotechnology itself. For many scientists, it is nothing startlingly new; after all we have been working at the nanoscale for decades, through electron microscopy. For most other groups, however, nanotechnology means something far more ambitious, miniature submarines in the bloodstream, little cogs and gears made out of atoms, space elevators made of nanotubes, and the colonization of space. It is no wonder people often muddle up nanotechnology with science fiction.

Nanoscale:

Although a meter is defined by the International Standards Organization as `the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second' and a nanometre is by definition 10- 9 of a meter, this does not help scientists to communicate the nanoscale to non-scientists. It is in human nature to relate sizes by reference to everyday objects, and the commonest definition of nanotechnology is in relation to the width of a human hair.

Nanocrystals:

Nanocrystals are an ideal light harvester in photovoltaic devices. They absorb sunlight more strongly than dye molecules or bulk semiconductor material, therefore high optical densities can be achieved while maintaining the requirement of thin films. Perfectly crystalline CdSe nanocrystals are also an artificial reaction center, separating the electron hole pair on a femtosecond timescale. Fluorescent nanocrystals have several advantages over organic dye molecules as fluorescent markers in biology. They are incredibly bright and do not photodegrade. Drug-conjugated nanocrystals attach to the protein in an extracellular fashion, enabling movies of protein trafficking. They also form the basis of a high-throughput fluorescence assay for drug discovery.

Science fiction

While there is a commonly held belief that nanotechnology is a futuristic science with applications 25 years in the future and beyond, nanotechnology is anything but science fiction. In the last 15 years over a dozen Nobel prizes have been awarded in nanotechnology, from the development of the scanning probe microscope (SPM), to the discovery of fullerenes. According to CMP Científica, over 600 companies are currently active in nanotechnology, from small venture capital backed start-ups to some of the world's largest corporations such as IBM and Samsung. Governments and corporations worldwide have ploughed over $4 billion into nanotechnology in the last year alone. Almost every university in the world has a nanotechnology department, or will have at least applied for the funding for one.

Nanotechnology is new

It often comes as a surprise to learn that the Romans and Chinese were using nanoparticles thousands of years ago. Similarly, every time you light a match, fullerenes are produced. Degusssa have been producing carbon black, the substance that makes car tyres black and improves the wear resistance of the rubber, since the 1920s. They were not aware that they were using nanotechnology, and as they had no control over particle size, or even any knowledge of the nanoscale they were not using nanotechnology as currently defined.
What is new about nanotechnology is our ability to not only see, and manipulate matter on the nanoscale, but our understanding of atomic scale interactions.

Building atom by atom

One of the defining moments in nanotechnology came in 1989 when Don Eigler used a SPM to spell out the letters IBM in xenon atoms. For the first time we could put atoms exactly where we wanted them, even if keeping them there at much above absolute zero proved to be a problem. While useful in aiding our understanding of the nanoworld, arranging atoms together one by one is unlikely to be of much use in industrial processes. Given that a Pentium 4 processor contains 42 million transistors, even simplifying the transistors to a cube of 100 atoms on each side would require 42 x 102 operations, and that is before we start to consider the other material and devices needed in a functioning processor.
We already have the ability to build things atom by atom, and on a very large scale; it is called physical chemistry, and has been in industrial use for over a century producing everything from nitrates to salt.

Conclusion

Nanotechnology, like any other branch of science, is primarily concerned with understanding how nature works. We have discussed how our efforts to produce devices and manipulate matter are still at a very primitive stage compared to nature. Nature has the ability to design highly energy efficient systems that operate precisely and without waste, fix only that which needs fixing, do only that which needs doing, and no more. We do not, although one day our understanding of nanoscale phenomena may allow us to replicate at least part of what nature accomplishes with ease.
Post: #58
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Post: #59
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Post: #60
 

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