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over voltage and under voltage protection

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1.1 Types of Power Supply

There are many types of power supply. Most are designed to convert high voltage AC mains electricity to a suitable low voltage supply for electronic circuits and other devices. A power supply can by broken down into a series of blocks, each of which performs a particular function.
For example a 5V regulated supply:
Figure 1.1 block diagram of a regulated power supply
Each of the blocks is described in more detail:
 Transformer- steps down high voltage AC mains to low voltage AC.
 Rectifier - converts AC to DC, but the DC output is varying.
 Smoothing - smooth’s the DC from varying greatly to a small ripple.
 Regulator - eliminates ripple by setting DC output to a fixed voltage.
1.1.1 Transformer only
Figure 1.2 Transformer Output
The low voltage AC output is suitable for lamps, heaters and special AC motors. It is not suitable for electronic circuits unless they include a rectifier and a smoothing capacitor.
1.1.2 Transformer + Rectifier
Figure 1.3 Transformer + Rectifier output
The varying DC output is suitable for lamps, heaters and standard motors. It is not suitable for electronic circuits unless they include a smoothing capacitor.
1.1.3 Transformer + Rectifier + Smoothing
Figure 1.4 Transformer + Rectifier + smoothing output
The smooth DC output has a small ripple. It is suitable for most electronic circuits.
1.1.4 Transformer + Rectifier + Smoothing + Regulator
Figure 1.5 Transformer + Rectifier + Smoothing + Regulator output
The Regulated Dc output is very smooth with no ripple. It is suitable for all electronic circuits.
1.2 Dual Supplies
Some electronic circuits require a power supply with positive and negative outputs as well as zero volts (0V). This is called a 'dual supply' because it is like two ordinary supplies connected together as shown in the diagram.
Figure 1.6 Dual Supply
Dual supplies have three outputs, for example a ±9V supply has +9V, 0V and -9V outputs.
1.3 Transformer
circuit symbol
Figure 1.7 Transformer & circuit symbol
Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with little loss of power. Transformers work only with AC and this is one of the reasons why mains electricity is AC.
Step-up transformers increase voltage, step-down transformers reduce voltage. Most power supplies use a step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously high mains voltage (230V in UK) to a safer low voltage.
The input coil is called the primary and the output coil is called the secondary. There is no electrical connection between the two coils; instead they are linked by an alternating magnetic field created in the soft-iron core of the transformer. The two lines in the middle of the circuit symbol represent the core.
Transformers waste very little power so the power out is (almost) equal to the power in. Note that as voltage is stepped down current is stepped up.
The ratio of the number of turns on each coil, called the turn’s ratio, determines the ratio of the voltages. A step-down transformer has a large number of turns on its primary (input) coil which is connected to the high voltage mains supply, and a small number of turns on its secondary (output) coil to give a low output voltage.
turns ratio = Vp = Np and power out = power in
Vs Ns Vs × Is = Vp × Ip
Vp = primary (input) voltage
Np = number of turns on primary coil
Ip = primary (input) current Vs = secondary (output) voltage
Ns = number of turns on secondary coil
Is = secondary (output) current
1.4 Rectifier
There are several ways of connecting diodes to make a rectifier to convert AC to DC. The bridge rectifier is the most important and it produces full-wave varying DC. A full-wave rectifier can also be made from just two diodes if a centre-tap transformer is used, but this method is rarely used now that diodes are cheaper. A single diode can be used as a rectifier but it only uses the positive (+) parts of the AC wave to produce half-wave varying DC.
1.4.1 Bridge rectifier
A bridge rectifier can be made using four individual diodes, but it is also available in special packages containing the four diodes required. It is called a full-wave rectifier because it uses all the AC wave (both positive and negative sections). 1.4V is used up in the bridge rectifier because each diode uses 0.7V when conducting and there are always two diodes conducting, as shown in the diagram below. Bridge rectifiers are rated by the maximum current they can pass and the maximum reverse voltage they can withstand (this must be at least three times the supply RMS voltage so the rectifier can withstand the peak voltages).
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