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pdf for satellite phone

i am ashutosh kumar afinal yar engineering student.i need this document for my technical seminar presentation
you can refer this page to get the the details on
sir plz send doc on satellite phone

.doc   SATELLITE PHONE.doc (Size: 360.5 KB / Downloads: 38)


Communication is defined as exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior.
Types of communication systems:
Communication systems are broadly classified as
• Wired
• Wireless
An advanced wireless communication system includes the following types;
• Satellite communication
• Mobile communication
And now narrowing down to satellite communication:
• Satellite phone
• Global positioning system


A telephone that transmits and receives from satellites that provides coverage around the world. Over eighty percent of the land on earth plus any body of water (we're talking oceans here) is without sufficient landline connection, depending on the architecture of a particular system, coverage may include the entire Earth, or only specific regions. With a satellite phone we are able to communicate with anyone with a phone number from almost anywhere. The sat phone more closely resembles our portable home phone or one of those clunky cell phones from fifteen years ago.
“Iridium was the first satellite phone company”.
An actual satellite phone can also be referred to by professionals in the satellite service field as a terminal or ‘earth station’. Some satellite phones can be chunky and reminiscent of the type of cell phones that were used in the 1980’s, but not all are made that way. Satellite phone shapes and sizes are changing much in the same way that digital phones have over the past decade. These are popular on expeditions into remote areas where terrestrial cellular service is unavailable.
A fixed installation, such as used shipboard, may include large, rugged, 9rack-mounted electronics, and a steer able microwave antenna on the mast that automatically tracks the overhead satellites. They provide similar functionality to terrestrial mobile telephones; voice, short messaging service and low-bandwidth internet access are supported through most systems.


There are only two ways to hook up two telephones in different parts of the world: they can be connected by a cable which runs on the surface of the earth and under the sea, or they can be connected by radio. Not every place on the earth is served by a cable connection to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), and thus some locations must either have no telephone service or be connected to the PSTN by a radio link.
Modern cellular phones in the industrial countries mostly work in the cities and on the major highways. This is because each cell is a radio link from the cell phone to the PSTN; and if a cell phone user is located where there are no cells, there is no service.
Because the earth is round, and because most radio waves travel in straight lines, it is not possible to form a direct radio link to a telephone or a gateway to the PSTN which is located over the horizon. An exception to this rule are the low frequency bands which can follow the curvature of the earth, but these frequencies were all allocated for other purposes decades ago and are not generally available for telephone service. Also it is possible to have a line of radio relay stations that stretch along the earth, but these are only practical for a large number of circuits carried by the PSTN. They play a similar role to the surface cables of the PSTN and are not generally available to individual subscribers.
Communications provide the critical path for relief in emergency and disaster situations. Communications connect and help move logistical, rescue and first responder resources in any region of the world facing or recovering from natural or man-made disasters. Deploying wireless communications is typically among the first priorities in any emergency response, rescue, or relief situation. However, terrestrial wireless equipment (cellular phones or land mobile radios) is only useful when communications towers and other fixed equipment are in place to connect wireless equipment to the local and global communications backbone. In the majority of emergency situations, this infrastructure has either been destroyed by the disaster (e.g. New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina) or was not available before the disaster (e.g. the earthquake in Pakistan).


There are four different satellite phone systems that have reached general popularity. They are
1. Globalstar
2. Inmarsat
3. Iridium
4. Thuraya


This satellite service plans were specifically designed to meet the needs of those who travel extensively. Consequently, they designed a phone that is a compact, tri-band handset that is able to operate on both the cellular CDMA and AMPS networks as well as the Globalstar network that consists of 48 low earth orbiting satellites. The benefit for those who take advantage of Globalstar plans is that the phones were created to switch smoothly between the cellular networks and the satellite network even while the phone is in use. Whenever possible, a Globalstar satellite phone will only use the cellular networks and switch to satellite only when they aren’t available. This offers customers the most cost effective satellite service available. In 2007 Globalstar launched eight additional first-generation spare satellites into space. Globalstar orbits have an inclination of 52 degrees. Therefore, Globalstar does not cover polar areas, due to the lower orbital inclination. Globalstar orbits have an orbital height of approximately 1400 km and latency is still relatively low.


INMARSET stands for International Maritime Satellite Organization. It was the first mobile satellite system conceptualized and brought to reality. Inmarset originally designed their satellite phones for the maritime industry, but they now offer phone service to a wide range of industries. Inmarset uses four geo-stationary satellites set at different locations over the equator. Tata Communications Ltd (TCL) permitted to provide Inmarsat services in India under their International Long Distance (ILD) license granted by Department of Telecommunications (DOT). TCL has their Land Earth Station (LES) at Delhi, and INMARSAT-B, M, Mini-M & M-4 services are now being provided through this LES after No Objection Certificate (NOC) is issued by DOT on case by case basis. TCL will ensure through appropriate technical arrangement with INMARSAT, that the communication from the INMARSAT Terminals under reference, is not capable of being passed through any other Gateway. TCL will also ensure monitoring arrangement similar to those followed in case of communication through INMARSAT. The equipment to be used should comply with the standard INMARSAT specification. TCL will ensure compliance to this as per standard INMARSAT procedure laid down for introduction of the terminals in their network.


This is probably the most recognized name in the satellite service industry. Iridium openly went bankrupt just one year after they launched their service. Motorola intervened, paid Iridium’s debts, re-launched satellite service in 2001 and has been providing successful service since. Iridium uses 66 satellites that orbit the earth on six different planes. Each individual Iridium satellite is able to orbit the earth once every 100 minutes. This arrangement allows Iridium to make sure that any Iridium handset can receive and make satellite phone calls from anywhere on the planet. The Iridium satellite constellation is a large group of satellites providing voice and data coverage to satellite phones, pagers and integrated transceivers over Earth's entire surface. Iridium Communications Inc. owns and operates the constellation and sells equipment and access to its services. , Iridium supports inter-satellite links only between satellites orbiting in the same direction.


It allows us to switch between the satellite system and the GSM system. The Thuraya service can roam on the local cellular network by replacing the Thuraya SIM card with a local prepaid SIM card. On the local network you are charged the local rates and not the Thuraya roaming rates. Thuraya satellite phones are capable of Internet connectivity, and data is available at no extra charge. Thuraya covers entire Europe and then Middle East, parts of India, Asia, and Africa.

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