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petroleum products
#1

petroleum products


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INTRODUCTION
Now-a-days petroleum products plays an important role in every field. It has a strong benefit and society impact. Petroleum (petroleum, from Greek: petra (rock) + Latin: oleum (oil)) or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling. This latter stage comes after the studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterization (mainly in terms of porosity and permeable structures). It is refined and separated, most easily by boiling point, into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagent used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials.



Indane Gas:-
Indane is today one of the largest packed-LPG brands in the world and has been conferred the coveted ‘Consumer Superbrand’ status by the Superbrands Council of India.
Having launched LPG marketing in the mid-60s, IndianOil has been credited with bringing about a ‘kitchen revolution,’ spreading warmth and cheer in millions of households with the introduction of the clean and efficient cooking fuel. It has led to a substantial improvement in the health of women, especially in rural areas by replacing smoky and unhealthy chulha. Indane is today an ideal fuel for modern kitchens, synonymous with safety, reliability and convenience.

Auto Gas:-
AutoGas (LPG) is a clean, high octane, abundant and eco-friendly fuel. It is obtained from natural gas through fractionation and from crude oil through refining. It is a mixture of petroleum gases like propane and butane. The higher energy content in this fuel results in a 10% reduction of CO2 emission as compared to MS.



Petrol/Gasoline:-
Automotive gasoline and gasoline-oxygenate blends are used in internal combustion spark-ignition engines. These spark ignition engine fuels are primarily used for passenger cars. They are also used in off-highway utility vans, farm machinery and in other spark ignition engines employed in a variety of service applications.

Diesel/Gas Oil:-
Petroleum derived diesel (called as petrodiesel) is a mixture of straight run product (150 °C and 350 °C) with varying amount of selected cracked distillates and is composed of saturated hydrocarbons (primarily paraffins including n , iso , and cycloparaffins) and aromatic hydrocarbons (including naphthaneles and alkylbenzene).
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#2
Petroleum products are materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as they are processed in oil refineries. Unlike petrochemicals, which are a collection of normally well-defined chemical compounds, petroleum products are complex mixtures. Most oil is converted into petroleum products, which includes various kinds of fuels.

Depending on the composition of crude oil and depending on market demands, refineries can produce different parts of petroleum products. The largest proportion of petroleum products is used as "energy carriers", ie several grades of fuel oil and gasoline. These fuels include or can be mixed to give it gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, heating oil and heavier fuel oils. Heavier (less volatile) fractions can also be used to produce asphalt, tar, paraffin wax, lubricants and other heavy oils. Refineries also produce other chemicals, some of which are used in chemical processes to produce plastics and other useful materials. Since oil often contains a small percentage of sulfur-containing molecules, elemental sulfur also often occurs as an oil product. Carbon, in the form of petroleum coke, and hydrogen can also be produced as petroleum products. The produced hydrogen is often used as an intermediate for other petroleum refining processes such as hydro-cracking and hydrodesulphurisation.
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