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POWDER METALLURGY
#1

POWDER METALLURGY


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Introduction


Defination:

Powder metallurgy is a branch of metallurgy which deals with the production of metal & nonmetal powders & subsequently manufacture of components by using these powders.


POWDER CONDITIONING


Annealing:
It is a heat treatment process.
Blending or Mixing:
Through mixing of powders are done to obtaining desired properties

APPLICATION


Automotive application
Defence application
High temperature applications
Aerospace application
Other application
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#2
Powder metallurgy (PM) is a term encompassing a wide range of forms in which the materials or components are made of metal powders. PM processes can prevent, or greatly reduce, the need to use metal stripping processes, thus drastically reducing yield losses in manufacturing and often resulting in lower costs.

Powder metallurgy is also used to make unique materials impossible to obtain from melting or forming in other ways. A very important product of this type is tungsten carbide (WC). The WC is used to cut and form other metals and is made of WC particles bound with cobalt. It is widely used in the industry for tools of many types and globally ~ 50,000t / yr is made by PM. Other products include sintered filters, porous oil impregnated bearings, electrical contacts and diamond tools.

The history of powder metallurgy and the art of sintering metal and ceramics are closely interrelated. Sintering involves the production of a hard solid metal or ceramic part from a starting powder. The ancient Incas made jewelry and other artifacts from precious metal powders, although the mass production of PM products did not begin until the mid or late nineteenth century. In these early manufacturing operations, the iron was manually extracted from a metal sponge after reduction and then reintroduced as a powder for final melting or sintering.

A much wider range of products can be obtained from powder processes than from the direct alloy of molten materials. In melting operations, the "phase rule" applies to all pure and combined elements and strictly determines the liquid and solid phase distribution that may exist for specific compositions. In addition, the melting of the whole body of the starting materials is required for the alloy, thus imposing undesirable chemical, thermal and containment restrictions in manufacture. Unfortunately, handling of aluminum / iron powders poses major problems. Other substances that are especially reactive with atmospheric oxygen, such as titanium, are sinterable in special atmospheres or with temporary coatings.

In powder metallurgy or ceramics it is possible to make components that otherwise decompose or disintegrate. All considerations of solid-liquid phase changes can be ignored, so powder processes are more flexible than casting, extrusion or forging techniques. Controllable characteristics of the products prepared using various powder technologies include mechanical, magnetic and other unconventional properties of materials such as porous solids, aggregates and intermetallic compounds. The competitive characteristics of the manufacturing process (eg, tool wear, complexity or vendor options) can also be tightly controlled.
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