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Solar Mobile Charger seminar report

Solar Mobile Charger

.docx   Solar Mobile Charger.docx (Size: 84.6 KB / Downloads: 43)

Abstract of Solar Mobile Charger

It works on the principle that when light falls on the solar cell, electron -hole pairs are created in the
n-type emitter and in the p-type base .The generated electrons (from the base) and holes (from the
emitter) then diffuse to the junction and are swept away by the electric field, thus producing. Certain
modules are selected and worked out to suitable specifications. The development of solar charger goes
from the fundamental level like soldering lamination and making the panel etc. The developed charger
is planned for 6 Volts with ma capacity at bright sunlight and step down to 5Volts using regulator .In
the report, the detailed experimental characteristics of mobile charger are noted.

Solar energy is the energy produced directly by the sun and collected elsewhere, normally the Earth.
The sun creates its energy through a thermonuclear process . The process creates heat and
electromagnetic radiation . Only a very small fraction of the total radiation produced reaches the Earth.
The radiation that does reaches the Earth is the indirect source of nearly every type of energy used
Today . The radiation that does reach the Earth is the indirect source of nearly every type of energy
Used today . The exceptions are geothermal energy, and nuclear fission and fusion. Even fossil fuels
Owe their origins to the sun; they were once living plants and animals whose life was dependent upon
The sun. Much of the world's required energy can be supplied directly by solar power. More still can
be provided indirectly. The practicality of doing so will be examined, as well as the benefits and
drawbacks In addition, the uses solar energy is currently applied to will be noted.

Due to the nature of solar energy, two components are required to have a functional solar energy
Generator . These two components are a collector and a storage unit. The collector simply collects the
Radiation that falls on it and converts a fraction of it to other forms of energy (either electricity and
heat or heat alone). The storage unit is required because of the non-constant nature of solar energy; at
certain times only a very small amount of radiation will be received. At night or during heavy
cloud cover , for example, the amount of energy produced by the collector will be quite small. The
storage unit can hold the excess energy produced during the periods of maximum productivity, and
release it when the productivity drops . In practice, a backup power supply is usually added, too, for
the situations . when the amount of energy required is greater than both what is being produced and
what is stored in the container

Photovoltaic Cell

The term "photovoltaic" comes from the Greek (photo) means "light", and "voltaic", means electric
,from the name of the Italian physicist “VOLTA "after whom a unit of electro-motive force, the volt is
Named . The sun is a star made up of hydrogen and helium gas and it radiates an enormous amount of
Energy every second . A photovoltaic cell is an electrical device that convert the energy of light
directly into electricity by photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaics is the field of technology and research
related to the practical application of photovoltaic cells in producing electricity from light, though it is
often used specifically to refer to the generation of electricity from sunlight. Cells can be described as
photovoltaic even when the light source is not necessarily sunlight (lamplight, artificial light, etc.). In
such cases the cell is sometimes used as a photodetector (for example infrared detectors,detecting
light or other electromagnetic radiation near the visible range, or measuring light intensity.

The operation of a photovoltaic (PV) cell requires 3 basic attributes: The absorption of light,generating either electron-hole pairs or excitons . The separation of charge carriers of opposite types.
The separate extraction of those carriers to an external circuit. In contrast, a solar thermal collector
Collects heat by absorbing sunlight, for the purpose of either direct heating or indirect electrical
powerGeneration . "Photoelectrolytic cell" (photoelectrochemical cell), on the other hand, refers either
a typeof photovoltaic cell (like that developed by A.E. Becquerel and modern dye-sensitized solar cells
or adevice that splits water directly into hydrogen and oxygen using only solar illumination.
Photovoltaicpower generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaicmateria l. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon,
silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, andcopper indium gallium selenide/sulfide.

Due to the increased demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells and
photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably in recent years. Solar photovoltaics is a sustainable
energy source. By the end of 2011, a total of 71.1 GW had been installed, sufficient to generate 85
TWh/year.And by end of 2012, the 100 GW installed capacity milestone was achieved. Solar
photovoltaics is now, after hydro and wind power, the third most important renewable energy source
in terms of globally installed capacity. More than 100 countries use solar PV. Installations may be
ground-mounted (and sometimes integrated with farming and grazing) or built into the roof or walls
of a building (either building-integrated photovoltaics or simply rooftop).

Driven by advances in technology and increases in manufacturing scale and sophistication, the cost of
photovoltaics has declined steadily since the first solar cells were manufactured, and the levelised cost
of electricity (LCOE) from PV is competitive with conventional electricity sources in an expanding
list of geographic regions. Net metering and financial incentives, such as preferential feed-in tariffs
for solar-generated electricity, have supported solar PV installations in many countries.With current
technology, photovoltaics recoup the energy needed to manufacture them in 3 to 4 years. Anticipated

Conciusion of future scope

• To make sure we have plenty of energy in the future, it's up to all of us to use energy wisely.
• We must all conserve energy and use it efficiently. It's also up to those who will create the new
energy technologies of the future.
• All energy sources have an impact on the environment. Concerns about the greenhouse effect and
global warming, air pollution, and energy security have led to increasing interest and more
development in renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, wave power and hydrogen
• In solar mobile charger ripples will not be there as we use DC power directly to charge the mobile.
• Battery life is more as high voltages are not developed.
• Versatility of Solar mobile charger is high.
• Life of the battery will be high as we use solar mobile charger.
Solar cell phone chargers use solar panels to charge the cell phone batteries. They are an alternative to conventional electric cell phone chargers and in some cases can be plugged into an electrical outlet.

[Image: 200px-Suntactics_sCharger-5.png]

There are also public solar chargers for mobile phones that can be permanently installed in public places such as streets, parks and squares. The model that according to the European Commission is proclaimed as the first in the world is the Strawberry Tree, public solar charger invented by Strawberry Energy Company. This solar station won first place in "EU Sustainable Energy Week (EUSEW) 2011" in the Consume category.

Some cell phone models have a built-in solar charger [6] and are commercially available for GSM mobile phone models. Solar cell phone chargers come in different shapes and configurations, including folding (Goal Zero, Endless Sun Solar) and rotary types (Solio).

They also come in the form of straps, with solar cells on the outer surface and a nickel metal hydride battery inside. Current solar cell technology limits the effectiveness and practicality of solar chargers for everyday use. The charging times of the phone vary depending on the capacity of the installed battery that continues to increase, further extending the charging times of the solar chargers. The foldable design has been shown to allow for greater charge current while maintaining a compact size and current designs are capable of charging a modern smartphone in 3 hours. Solar chargers are also available for other cell phone accessories such as bluetooth headsets and speaker phones.

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