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UTILITY SYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLED SOURCES OF REACTIVE POWER ppt
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UTILITY SYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLED SOURCES OF REACTIVE POWER


.pptx   UTILITY SYSTEM.pptx (Size: 1.39 MB / Downloads: 34)

INTRODUCTION

Reactive power – the background energy movement in an Alternating Current (AC) system arising from the production of electric and magnetic fields
Power system stability - the property of a power system that enables it to remain in a state of operating equilibrium under normal operating conditions and to regain an acceptable state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance

SOURCES OF REACTIVE POWER

Synchronous Generators - can be made to generate or absorb reactive power depending upon the excitation (a form of generator control) applied
Capacitive & Inductive Compensators - can be connected to the system to adjust voltage levels.
Multilevel inverter - have drawn tremendous interest in the power industry

DIODE-CLAMPED MULTILEVEL INVERTER

A diode clamped multilevel inverter contains full-bridge five-level diode-clamped converter. The DC bus consists of four capacitors.
For a dc bus voltage Vdc, the voltage across each capacitor is Vdc/4, and each device voltage is limited to one capacitor through clamping diode.

MULTI-LEVEL INVERTERS IN REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION

An inverter produces a controlled reactive current and operates as a static volt-ampere reactive (VAR)-compensator (STATCON)
An inverter converts a dc voltage to an ac voltage with a phase shift of 180°; the inverter can, hence, be operated as a dc-ac converter, that is, a controlled rectifier
With a purely capacitive load, the inverter operating as a dc-ac converter can draw reactive current from the ac-supply

USE IN INDUSTRY

Reactive power finds its application in cases where voltage stability is required
Voltage collapse is a big threat to transmission systems. If it is allowed to happen, several important transmission lines in a power system may trip
High reactive power output from generators is used to prevent voltage collapse
The load compensation due to reactive power makes it possible to increase the loading of the power system according to voltage stability
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This is acceptable at some level, if the system is purely resistive or capacitance causing some problem in the electrical system. AC systems supply or consume two types of power: real power and reactive power. Actual power performs useful work while reactive power supports the voltage that must be controlled for system reliability. Reactive power has a profound effect on the safety of power systems, as it affects voltages throughout the system. Find a major discussion about the importance of reactive energy and how useful it is to keep the system voltage healthy.

The analysis is performed on the basis of different international and local utility standards for voltage source converters (VSCs) and distribution. The ability of VSC to provide reactive power support is explored in a structural manner to improve voltage stability as well as power quality. The functional requirements of VSCs are identified for this purpose in a generalized platform with the assumption of extension of network automation up to the level of distributed resources. The step-by-step formulation of voltage stability and reactive power support requirements from the system level are translated at the VSC level for the static and dynamic operation of the system with the aim of improving system performance and the new scenario of the energy market. The opportunity of the tariff benefit would attract DG operators and customers for participating in system security through reactive power support and voltage profiling. The main contribution of the study is to provide a complete guide for voltage control and reactive support of VSC DG interfaces in active distribution combining static and dynamic constraints.
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