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Laminar Flow (Membraneless) Fuel cells (LFFC’s)
#1

Laminar Flow (Membraneless) Fuel cells (LFFC’s)


.pptx   Laminar Flow (Membraneless).pptx (Size: 916.95 KB / Downloads: 66)

Overview

The first fuel cell was developed by Sir Robert Grove (1839)
Modern fuel cell
Two types (PEMFC and SOFC)

Why use fuel cells?

Alternative to batteries
Li-Ion- 250-360 Wh/L
Hydrogen - 2800 Wh/L
Borohydride - 2200 Wh/L
Methanol - 4416 Wh/L

Environmental concerns

Generally cleaner (H/C ratio)
Coal – .5-1.0
Ethanol – 3.0
Sodium Borohydride – 4.0
Methane, Methanol- 4.0
Hydrogen – Inf

Disadvantages of current fuel cells

PEMFC
Low Temperature
Expensive catalysts (Platinum/Palladium/Ruthenium)
Expensive Membrane (Nafion $15/cm^2-low loading)
MEA can account for 50% cost
SOFC
High Temperature
No catalysts required
Can run on butane, methane etc.
Cross Over
Diffusion of reactants at anode and cathode can be rate limiting
Hydrogen/Oxygen cells bulky due to hydrogen storage issues

Laminar Flow Fuel Cells

Direct Methanol Fuel cells
High Crossover/Low Efficiency
Very common fuel for FC’s
LFFC’s
Diffusion Based
Reynolds Number = .01
Still have some issues with crossover

Other Fuels/Self Pumping

Ancillary Mechanisms needed (eg. Pump)
Can make system complex and expensive
Formic acid/Sulfuric acid also widely researched
Self Pumping Mechanism
UCLA and MTU

APPLICATIONS

Portable power (cell phones, laptops etc.)
INI Power Systems, of North Carolina (www.inipower.com), says it delivered a beta 15W system to a military customer in August and signed a joint development agreement with a major Asian battery and laptop OEM to integrate its stacks into a consumer platform. It is also working on a telecommunications power supply with partner Advanced Power Systems, targeted for the first half of 2008. Anthony Atti, VP of business development, reports the military test unit is running more than nine hours on 200cc of neat methanol, and a 72-hour military mission would require total system and fuel weight of less than 9lb.
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#2

The effect of flow and flow anode architectures as well as operating conditions such as different fuel flow rates and LFFC performance concentrations were investigated. Formic acid at concentrations of 0.5 M and 1 M was exploited in a solution of 0.5 M sulfuric acid as support electrolyte at variable flow rates of 20, 50, 100 and 200 μl / min. Due to improved mass transport to catalytic active sites, the continuous flow anode showed improved maximum power density and single pass fuel utilization compared to the planar flow anode. Maximum power densities of 26.5 mW / cm 2 and 19.4 mW / cm 2 were obtained for the cells with flow and flow anodes, respectively, over 200 μl / min of 1 M formic acid. In addition, the chronoamperometry experiment at a flow rate of 100 μl / min at 0.5 M and 1 M fuel concentrations revealed mean current densities of 34.2 mA / cm 2 and 52.3 mA / cm 2 with an average fuel utilization of 16.3% and 21.4% through design. The upflow design had the corresponding values ​​of 25.1 mA / cm2 and 35.5 mA / cm2 with a fuel utilization of 11.1% and 15.7% for the same fuel and flow rates.

The membraneless LFFCs benefit from the lamination of multiple currents in a microchannel. The lack of convection mixing leads to a well-defined liquid-liquid interface. Normally, the anode and the cathode are located on both sides of the interface. The liquid-liquid interface is considered as a virtual membrane and the ions can travel through the channel to reach the other side and complete the ionic conduction. The advantage of the LFFC membrane is the lack of a physical membrane and the problems related to the conditioning of the membrane can be eliminated or become less important. Based on electrode architectures, membraneless LFFCs in the literature can be classified into three main types: flow design with planar electrodes, flow design with three-dimensional porous electrodes and membraneless LFFC with air-breathing cathode. Since this paper focuses on reviewing the design considerations of LFFC membraneless, a concept map is provided for understanding cross-problems.
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Marked Categories : membraneless fuel cells and scaling, membraneless laminar flow, seminar abstract on laminar flow, membraneless fuel cell,

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