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 LINEAR WAVESHAPING pdf

LINEAR WAVESHAPING LINEAR WAVESHAPING.pdf (Size: 2.67 MB / Downloads: 37)

Introduction:

If a circuit is designed with components like R ,L and C then it is called linear circuit.
When sinusoidal signal is applied ,the shape of the signal is preserved at the output with
or without change in the amplitude and shape. But a non-sinusoidal signal alters the
output when it is transmitted through a linear circuit.
The process whereby the form of non-sinusoidal signals such as step, pulse,
square wave, ramp and exponential is altered by transmission through a linear network
is called linear wave shaping.

HIGHPASS RC CIRCUIT

Consider high pass RC circuit as shown in fig.1 below.
The capacitor offers high reactance at low frequency and low reactance at high
frequency. Hence low frequency components are not transmitted ,but high frequencies are with
less attenuation. Therefore the output is large and the circuit is called a high pass circuit.
Let us see now is, what will be the response if different types of inputs, such as,
sinusoidal ,step, pulse, square wave, exponential and ramp are applied to a highpass circuit., like?

MULTIVIBRATORS

Multivibrators are cross-coupled two-stage regenerative amplifiers acting as switching
circuits . Multivibrators are broadly classified as
1. Bistable multi or binary or Flip-Flop
2. Monostable multi or One shot multi or univibrator
3. Astble multi or Freerunning multi
Multivibrators are extensively used in digital and switching applications. A bistable
multivibrator remains in one of the stable states until we are asked to change. Hence this
circuit is essentially used as a memory element in digital circuits..
A monostable multi has only one stable state and one quasi-stable state. Initially the multi
is in stable state. After the application of a trigger, the multi goes into the quasistable
state and stays there for a finite time and will return back to the initial stable state. Such a
circuit is used as a gate.
Other type of multivibrator is an Astable multi which has two quasistable states. This
means that change of state occurs in the multi simultaneously. So, the output of this multi
is a squarewave. The output of an astable multi is normally used as a clock signal in
digital circuits.

Methods of triggering a binary:

To change the binary from one stable state to the other, a pulse of short duration
with sufficient amplitude (called trigger) of proper polarity should be applied at the
input(output) of an active device the circuit. The trigger can be a dc trigger or it can be a
pulse trigger. There are two triggering methods to change the state of multivibrator.
1. Unsymmetrical triggering
2. Symmetrical triggering.

ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

Introduction:

Two cross-coupled switching circuits are connected in this arrangement. The
devices in this Multivibrator will not remain in one state (either ON or OFF) forever.
Change of state in the devices occurs continuously after a finite time interval depending
on the circuit components used. Hence this circuit has two quasistable states.
Let Q1 and Q2 be two transistors used. If Q1 is ON, then Q2 is OFF. These will
remain in this state only for a fixed time duration after which Q1 switches into the OFF
state and Q2 into the ON state without applying triggering pulse and this process is
repeated. Therefore it is also called Free running multivibrator. The output of the circuit
is a squarewave, having two time periods,T1 and T2. If T1 = T2=T/2 , then the circuit is a
symmetric astable multivibrator. If T1¹ T2, then it is called an unsymmetrical astable
multi-vibrator. The astable multivibrator is essentially a squarewave generator

Linear elements such as resistors, capacitors and inductors are used to form a signal in this linear waveform. A sinusoidal wave input has a sinusoidal wave output and therefore the non-sinusoidal inputs are used more prominently to understand the formation of linear waves.

A signal can also be called as a wave. Each wave has a certain shape when it is represented in a graph. This shape may be of different types, such as sinusoidal, square, triangular, etc., which vary with respect to the time period or may have some random shapes regardless of the period of time.

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